# Questions tagged [non-central]

use for questions about socalled non-centrality parameters, in distributions such as t, F, chisquare, wishart and others.

49 questions
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### Power Analysis and Non-Central t Distribution

I'm a bit confused about power analysis and the non-central t-distribution. If I am in a situation where $H_0$ is $\mu = 0$, and $H_1$ is $\mu > 0$, I calculate for what value $\mu$ would have a ...
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### Derive the distribution of the ANOVA F-statistic under the alternative hypothesis

Say we have $k$ samples of data, where sample $i$ is of size $n_i$ and we write it as $x_{i1}, ... , x_{in_i}$. Let the total sample size be $N$. The ANOVA model is $X_{ij} \sim N(\mu_i, \sigma^2)$ ...
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### Why doesn't the TOST equivalence testing procedure use non-central $t$ distribution to determine the $p$ value?

I'm looking at Lakens' (2017) primer and he tests the hypothesis that there is a difference between two groups $X_1$and $X_2$of magnitude $\Delta=E[X_1]-E[X_2] \neq0$ by subtracting $\Delta$ from the ...
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### Relationship between the gamma distribution and Non-central chi squared distribution?

If $Y = \sum_{i=1}^N X_i^2$, where $X_i \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$, i.e. all $X_i$ are i.i.d gaussian random variables of same mean and variance, then what is the resultant PDF of $Y$? How the ...
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### How to calculate mean and variance of non central chi distribution of the problem?

If $Y = \sqrt{\sum_{i=1}^N X_i^2}$, where $X_i \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu,\sigma^2)$, i.e. all $X_i$ are i.i.d gaussian random variables of same mean and variance, then what is the resultant PDF of $Y$? ...
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### Where is the error: doubly noncentral $F$-distribution

Let $F=(X/n_1)/(Y/n_2)$ where $X$ and $Y$ are independent, $X$ is $\chi^2$ with noncentrality parameter $\lambda_1\geq 0$, and $Y$ $\chi^2$ with NCP $\lambda_2\geq 0$. According to this Wolfram ...
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### expectation of Log Noncentral Chi

Let $X$ follow non central chi distribution, the formula of $\mathbb{E}[\log(X)]$ (or equivalently $\mathbb{E}[\log(X^2)]$ where $X^2$ is Non central chi square) can be found here and here. However, ...
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### Distribution of the step size of diffusion in 3-dimensional space

I need to find the distribution of the random variable $$Y=\sqrt{X_1^2+X_2^2+X_3^2}$$ where $X_i\sim{\cal{N}}(0,\sigma^2)$ and $\sigma^2$ is related to diffusion coefficient. All $X_i$s are ...
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### t-test: understanding alternative hypothesis, power, and noncentral distributions

While the alternative hypothesis $H_a: \mu_c \ne \mu_t$ covers an infinite number of possible values for $\mu_t$, the power of the test can only be defined based on a point value of $\mu_t$ - is this ...
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### What is the median of the non-central F ratio distribution

I am looking for a simple approximation to the median of the (simply) non-central F distribution with parameters dlnum, dldenominator, and ncp, the non-centrality parameter. Clearly, there is no ...
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### Does scaling a central $\chi^2$ distribution produce a non-central $\chi^2$ distribution?

For independent samples from two normal populations, $X_1,\dotsc,X_n\sim N(\mu_X, \sigma_X^2)$ and $Y_1,\dotsc,Y_m\sim N(\mu_Y,\sigma^2_Y)$, the $F$ test for equality of variances uses the statistic \...
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### Possible to use moment generating function of standard normal to find variance of noncentral $\chi^{2}$?

In a homework problem, I have been asked to find the variance of the noncentral $\chi_{n,\delta}^{2}$ distribution with degrees of freedom $n$ and noncentral parameter $\delta >0$ by using the ...
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### Why are these two random variables identically distributed?

Let $(X_1, X_2, \ldots, X_i, \ldots, X_k)$ be $k$ independent, normally distributed random variables with means $\mu_i$ and variances $1$. Then the random variable $$\sum_{i=1}^k X_i^2$$ is ...
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### Is there a PDF for a generalized non-central chi-squared distribution [duplicate]

Is there a PDF for a distribution defined as a sum of squares of random variables pulled from a family of normal distributions with different standard deviation? Is there a way of analytically ...
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### Is there a known generalization of the doubly noncentral t-distribution?

Given $p$-variate normal $X \sim \mathcal{N}\left(\mu,\Sigma\right)$, consider the random variable $$t_* = \frac{X_1}{\sqrt{\sum_{2\le i \le p} X_i^2}}.$$ For some values of $\Sigma$, this ...
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### Generate data from a t-distribution with specified mean and standard deviation [duplicate]

How does one randomly sample from a T-distribution in R. From what I've found, the function rt in R doesn't let you specify the mean and standard deviation. For a ...
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### Efficient fitting of noncentral chi-squared distribution to data?

I am looking for the most efficient way to fit a noncentral chi-squared distribution with fixed d.o.f. to a given data set. So the inputs are d.o.f. and the data and the output should be the ...
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### Is there standard nomenclature for Confidence Distributions?

I am wondering if there are standard naming conventions in general for confidence distributions or for the particular cases of the non-centrality parameters of (non-central) $t$- and $F$-distributions....
Suppose I observe a random variable $x$ drawn from a non-central t- or F- distribution, and would like to perform inference on the non-centrality parameter. How would a Bayesian approach this problem? ...
The classical F-test for subsets of variables in multilinear regression has the form $$F = \frac{(\mbox{SSE}(R) - \mbox{SSE}(B))/(df_R - df_B)}{\mbox{SSE}(B)/df_B},$$ where $\mbox{SSE}(R)$ is the ...