Questions tagged [non-independent]

Data, events, processes, etc, are non-independent if knowledge of 1 provides some information about the state or value of the other.

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Violation of Independence of Observations - Logistic Regression

Apologies if this seems a basic question but I can't find enough detailed information about what exactly constitutes a violation of independent observations. The regression I'm wanting to run is ...
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21 views

How to test mean differences in proportions that are dependent

I have an experimental setup where I have allowed groups consisting of about 50 animals to select between two environmental conditions. I.e. animals had the possibility to move between the two ...
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97 views

Comparing Spearman rank correlations between many dependent lists

I have a list of values $S$. I want to compare the Spearman correlations of $S$ with $N$ other lists of values $O_k$ ( $k∈[N]$ ). The lists $O_k$ are not independent. Each value $O_k^j$ ( $j∈[|O_k|]$ )...
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Treating dependent timepoints as independent

I've been given a data set to work with that includes measurements of the same group of individuals over approximately 6 months (3 measurements total). The problem is that they did not include any ...
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Sign of Covariance and of Spearman's Rho

Has anybody available a proof that the covariance between two variables has always the same sign as Spearman's Rho, assuming that both are not zero, or an explanation / counterexample to show why this ...
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16 views

Dependent variables, regression

I am trying do make some descriptive statistic. In my dataset I have ID, Age, time from start of being registered, sex, birth-place. The time from start of being registered minus date 15 June 2019 ...
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30 views

Is an autoregressive model considered a model for independent or dependent data?

It seems to me that, in the statistical literature, data, models, and inference seem to conflate the terminology of dependent and independent. Case 1: a cross sectional sample of weight and height ...
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70 views

Is there a way to cluster data using a dependent variable? [closed]

We are conducting research on neighborhood mail response behavior, i.e. what percentage of people in a neighborhood reply to a piece of mail. Based on regression analysis, we know which factors (% ...
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39 views

Repeated measures/pseudoreplication - Comparing all samples against all other samples

I am currently analysing some data, and I am not confident that I am going about it in as statistically sound way. We are trying to determine whether our treatments affect the distance between two ...
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30 views

How to deal with subset of variables that are invariant for subsets of sample

I am thinking about a problem in which I have a sample which consists of subsamples with the same values for a subsample of independent variables. I want to apply a simple linear regression with ...
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14 views

Test to compare means of non independent samples with repeated measures

I am struggling a little to know if I am comparing independent or not independent data and I am not sure what kind of test I should use. Here is the pitch : I would like to compare latencies between ...
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Extract covariate adjusted dependent variable from linear regression model?

I want to adjust a continuous (dependent) variable for two independent variables (1 categorical, 1 continuous) and then use the residuals + intercept for plotting by another categorical variable. Is ...
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14 views

Use of a predictor variable for a dependent variable that is directly related to the predictor variable

If I would like to predict a binary variable x, and x is true if y is true and ...
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1answer
30 views

Correct C-Vine Configuration to emulate a predefined correlation matrix

I am trying to simulate a vine copula with a predefined dependence structure, so I can generate samples for my desired dependence structure. However, I am having trouble defining the Vine structure ...
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1answer
25 views

Alternative to GLM with non-independant observation

I would like to perform a regression to study association between 3 categorical variables and a presence/absence response variable. I was planning on using a GLM. However, my observation unit being ...
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55 views

Confused about multilevel analysis and non independence of observations

I'm still struggling with my understanding of multilevel analysis, wondering if it applies or not to my problem. I'v read here the following (where author gives an example of a multilevel model with ...
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When does $E[f(X_i)]=E[f(X_j)], i\neq j$?

Suppose we have random variables $X_1, \dots, X_N$, with joint probability distribution $F_{X_1,\dots,X_N}$. Under what conditions does the following equality holds? $$E[f(X_i)]=E[f(X_j)],\ \ i\neq ...
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Clustering items based on response behavior on three tasks

I have a question and was hoping someone could point me in an appropriate direction. I conducted a large experiment and would now like to find patterns in the response behavior of the subjects. The ...
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how to handle non-independent experimental data

I have data to analyse that involves 12 treatments. Each treatment was "replicated" 3 times, for 36 observations. But the experiment involved applying the treatment to 1 side of an object -- and most ...
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How to test the equality of two Pearson correlation coefficients computed from the same sample?

Is there a reliable way to say if two Pearson correlations from the same sample (do not) differ significantly? More concrete, I calculated the correlation between a total score on a questionnaire and ...
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27 views

Estimation of model with non linear dependent variable

I am trying to verify whether two variables are linked by a relation of the type: |y|=ax or y^2=ax. What could be the right statistical procedure to verify whether the above relations are correct and ...
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Why dependencies would cancel while paramterizing CPD?

Consider that in CPTs of a Bayes Net(structure is fixed) one dependence is fix(parameters are set for $P(X|Y)$) and we are parameterizing other CPDs, is it possible that the other parameters would ...
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Regression with dependent data with low dependence

Suppose you have data that is grouped in one way or another and therefore the assumption of independence is suspect. But you look at the intraclass correlation (or autocorrelation) and it is very ...
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Can statistical dependence arise only at the limit?

(This has been inspired by a comment exchange with @guy). Assume we have two infinite sequences of random variables, $\{X_n\}$ and $\{Y_n\}$. Assume the RVs in $\{X_n\}$ are statistically ...
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Compare categorical variables that are not(?) independent

I have some survey data in which respondents were classified in to two overlapping groups (i.e. respondents who work in a profession and people who do this same work on their own-- many people do ...
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Which test to run for effect of nominal independent variable on multiple ordinal dependent variables

Im new to stats so dont shoot me. I am trying to work out what is the correct test to run in the following scenario Does the independent nominal variable of colour, with four categories (Blue, Brown, ...
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statistics of (possibly) non-independent interacting systems with fat tails

I apologize if this question has already been asked. I don't know the proper terminology to find my answer - so if it has, please direct me to it! Problem setup: I have many time series of a ...
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Can two variables be included in same model when if binary B=0, continuous C>0 and when B=1, C=0?

I am interested in looking at the effect of both a binary predictor ("B") and a continuous predictor ("C") on an outcome. However, the value of C is conditional on B in that for B=1, C=0; for B=0, C>0....
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Standardised effect size and CI for non-independent longitudinal data in a linear mixed-effect model (LMM)

I would like to calculate standardised effect sizes with confidence intervals for fixed effects in a linear mixed effect model (LMM) for data that have an unbalanced repeated measures longitudinal ...
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1answer
63 views

Govt. organisation favouritism in its complaint handling

I am analysing some data for a government organisation and trying to convince them that their complaint decisions are biased. I believe they favour certain organisations. I have put together the ...
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Two correlated ordinal independent variables, several continuous dependent variables

I am currently struggling with a somewhat atypical analysis. People have been evaluating their cognitive state at two time periods – when they had attended school and at the present moment. Naturally, ...
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1answer
26 views

What stats method to apply when measuring a trait multiple times from the same individual?

I have 2 species of wildflowers. Using scanning electron microscopy. I took images of the petal surface. On the petal surface I measured the height and width of individual cells. I have 1 to 3 ...
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24 views

Cross-Sectional Dependence Test in Panel-Data Models

I did cross section Dependence test in Eviews for panel data (EGLS Model) and Breusch-Pagan LM test, Pesaran scaled LM test, Bias-corrected scaled LM test confirmed the cross-section dependece but ...
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Accounting for factors that could be driving a difference between two means

just restarted data analysis so I've lost my edge quite a bit. Anyway, I've come across a problem and Im a bit stumped. I have a dataset for adverts. I want to measure the uplift in conversion ...
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non-parametric tests for repeated observations

I am looking for an RM-ANOVA alternative that fits with non-normal data that may not satisfy sphericity assumption. My dataset: Through a mark and recapture study, I trapped turtles, and collected ...
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Comparing means of two experiments over time using LME

I have conducted a lab study on ocean warming and corals using an aquaria tower with 3 levels á 4 aquaria. Each level depicted one temperature treatment (2 heat treatments and 1 control): Level 1 = ...
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Is this exercise question well-posed? Dependence of marginal normals with correlation $\rho$

An exercise question asks me to find the tail-dependence of $X$ and $Y$, where $\operatorname{Corr}(X, Y) = \rho$, and both $X$ and $Y$ are standard normal variables. The tail-dependence is $$ \lim_{...
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Testing statistical independence before using ICA

First a little bit of background. I'm interested in exploring the performance of Independent Component Analysis (ICA) in the context of disentangling intracranial EEG signals. These signals are ...
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11 views

Statistical test to compare dependent samples

I am comparing by race the number of limbs (4 total - including both arms and both legs) affected by condition X. Some patients contribute 4, some 1, and some somewhere in between. I want to compare ...
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Correcting for sample overlap (loss of statistical independence) in two z-tests

Short form: How can I correct two p-values computed from normal distributions to account for the fact that part of the samples overlap? Long form: I have a sequence of i.i.d RVs of length $n$. The ...
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230 views

Dependent vs Independent events (Conditional Probability using a pair of dice)

I am watching this video on YouTube to understand dependent and independent events and conditional probability. The example author uses is of a pair of dice. There are 2 dice, Red and Green, let's ...
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Which statistical method should use to compare two dependent data (from 1 patient) but not paired?

I want to compare the number of lesions worsening and non worsening on superior to inferior side of the eye of a group of patients. I want to compare if the proportional results (the total sum of ...
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1answer
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Are basic multilayer perceptrons well-suited to prediction of non-independent events?

Multilayer perceptrons are great for discovering associations between variables defining independent events based on the same underlying associations in reality. Less cryptically put, MLP's are great ...
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71 views

Expectation of the minimum of dependent random variables

How do we compute the expectation of the minimum of dependent random variables? In other words, what is the value of $\mathbb{E}[Y]$ in the following case: $$ \mathbb{E}[Y]= \mathbb{E}\big[\min(X_1,\ ...
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61 views

Critical value for Mann's test against trend

To test that a sample $X_1,\ldots,X_n$ are i.i.d against that the distributions of $X_i$ are stochastically increasing in $i$, how to find the distribution of the test statistic and the critical value ...
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Variables relationship in large multidimensional datasets

Suppose I have quite a large time series (e.g., daily car accident rates in London for the past 20 years) and I also have further datasets for the same time period (e.g., daily precipitation, wind ...
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Compare treatment effects across Levels of aggregation

Suppose I am running an experiment to see if a treatment changes the mean weight of a group of people. Note that I am specifically interested in the mean weight: if half the people get heavier, and ...
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1answer
70 views

Can ANOVA be used for percent frequency data?

Problem: Suppose there are three restaurants in a town. I conduct a survey by asking each person what percentage of time you eat in restaurant A, restaurant B and restaurant C. The percentages for ...
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How to compare 3 dependent conditions?

I have the result of an experiment for N subjects. The experiment results in 3 possibilities, the subject choose A, B or C. For each subject, the experiment is repeated 10 times. So I have ...
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re-analysis of someone else's data: 5 treatments x 4 non-exclusive outcomes

I am trying to re-analyze (ETA: used loosely; the original study performed no statistical analysis) some published biological data (below). They used 5 treatments and scored presence/absence of 4 non-...