# Questions tagged [numpy]

NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific computing with Python.

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### Reinforcement learning on pandas dataframe. Problems regarding space and observations

I am trying to create a reinforcement learning algorithm which optimizes Pulltimes (timestamp) on a flight schedule, this happens by the agent substracting a number between 30-60 from the current STD (...
1 vote
122 views

### Python/numpy - conditional sampling of variables, distribution of subsequent value is based on result of previous value

I am trying to generate a random sample of multiple variables which are loosely related to each other. Meaning that "allowed" values of some variables depend on the value which is set for ...
1 vote
56 views

### How to calculate the equilibrium (initial probability) for second order HMM in python?

I have a transition matrix looks like: ...
• 11
83 views

### Generating multivariate random variable with normal and exponential marginals

I have a collection of data points of the form $[U, V, X, Y]$, where $U$ ~ $N(\mu_1, \sigma_1)$; $V$ ~ $N(\mu_2, \sigma_2)$; $X$ ~ $exp(\lambda_1)$; and $Y$ ~ $exp(\lambda_2)$, and I am looking to ...
• 123
1 vote
59 views

### Logistic regression with SGD getting low error with high learning rate

The thing is that I am implementing LR with SGD. Here is my cross error function: ...
• 61
81 views

### Regression analysis with max value

I am trying to find the best curve that will describe my data. my data are stored in numpy arrays of t and dur they are both in ...
1k views

### Statistically compare two large continuous datasets

I have multiple images with 1 band/channel. This of an RGB image, then I only have the blue band/channel. In other words, multiple 1D datasets, or multiple 1D arrays. I would like to statistically ...
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1 vote
670 views

### Gradient of a multivariate function numpy

I'm trying to calculate the gradient of multivariate function g using NumPy. g = lambda w: -np.sin(np.pi*np.sum(w**2)) + np.log(np.sum(w**2)) ...
1 vote
69 views

### Positive semi definite matrix with negative eigenvalues?

From what I know, for any square real matrix A, a matrix generated with the following should be a positive semidefinite (PSD) matrix: ...
1 vote
29 views

### Working with sparse data in numpy and sklearn [closed]

I have a time series dataset geenrated from some electrophysiological data. I have a frequncy dataset and the matrix is quite sparse but huge, like it contains 0.005 s time bins for 2000+ neurons ...
222 views

### RMSE, MAE and MAPE reduced but RMSPE increased after removing outliers in linear regression

I am using a linear regression model with 465 datapoints to predict crop yield of wheat. The data points are spilt into training and testing sets in 80:20 ratio. Initially, I tried linear regression ...
37 views

### Sklearn PCA projection differences while reproducing projection sample by sample

I've been stuck on this issue due to inability to reproduce the performance of PCA-classification pipeline on training data, but in case the pipeline receives one sample at a time. This seems to be ...
15 views

### Preprocessing protocol to derive wavelength from slanted wave profile

I am trying to derive a wavelength from sediment wave profiles. In some instances with the data, the sediment waves occur on a slope. This slope can be straight or curved depending on each instance. ...
1 vote
67 views

### How do I get the stationary distribution of a Markov chain matrix from SVD?

I have a matrix that represents a Markov chain. ...
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1 vote
45 views

### Probability of drawing N elements from M elements with per element draw probability without replacement

I have a list of M elements with per element draw probability, summing to 1.0. Example (M=10): L = [0.3, 0.2, 0.01, 0.05, 0.02, 0.02, 0.2, 0.05, 0.05, 0.1] Now I ...
164 views

### Implement permutation test for difference of means (procedure described in linked book) in Python

Asked also on Stack Overflow. Question summary: I've implemented method described in a book and got results different than expected. What am I doing wrong? Consider the following problem: farmer is ...
393 views

### How to sample from non-gaussian dataset [duplicate]

Let's say I have a small dataset (normalized), that doesn't necessarily follow a gaussian distribution. We can see that by plotting it on a simple histogram. There is clearly a bias. There is also a ... 88 views

### I'm performing a multi linear regression on the The Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker. I have a couple of doubts about the process

I hope this is the right place to ask this. I'm currently working my way through a dataset and performing Multiple Linear Regression on it. The data is for Oxford Governement Response Tracker for the ...
1 vote
145 views

### Behaviour of intralayer (lateral) connections in neural network during training

I am interested in experimenting with some very simple neural network architectures by building them in numpy. I have followed a course in how to build a feed-forward multilayer neural network in ...
2k views

### How can i get the phase difference between two frequencies?

I have two signals of the same frequency. Both have frequencies of 13.56Mhz, and I want to find the phase difference between these two frequencies. The function generator generates a sinusoidal ... 1k views

### How to sample from truncated distributions using scipy?

I have min and max values for certain variables such as: Expenses Loss Growth I'd like to add a distribution around them and plot a histogram in python. Distribution could be beta, gamma right type ...
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251 views

### How to create and solve a underdetermined nonlinear system of equations using python

as i already mentioned in the header my plan is to create and solve a system of nonlinear equations in python. As I also mentioned, the equations system will be underdetermined. I will try to give an ...
34 views

### Standard deviation cap crosses zero

Let's say I have some reference data and some predicted data and I want to show the standard deviation of the mean absolute error. When I create error bar using numpy and matplotlib, errorbar crosses ...
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692 views

### In Python, can I use mean, median, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, population size, and single sample to generate statistically identical data?

Example situation After each exam, the professor provides the following information. Minimum Score [Arithmetic] Mean Median Maximum Score Standard Deviation I also know what my score was as well as ...
• 1
107 views

### Visualize PCA, train or test?

I am new to PCA and have a question about visualization when it comes to fitting and transposing. I have two data, which are train and test. Here are four methods: ...
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32 views

### What I have this rare output value of variance and standart deviation functions in numpy? [duplicate]

Hell i have nonsense values of variance and standart deviation in numpy. this documentation no make sense with this sample. https://numpy.org/doc/stable/reference/generated/numpy.std.html youtube ...
1k views

### When does MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) fail?

I have a multioutput regression model that predicts float values. When using MAPE to evaluate regression model performance (using either built in libraries or implementing a function for it) I am ...
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1 vote
612 views

### Numpy.cov() in Python returning a matrix of NaN's instead of 0's [closed]

The cov() method from the numpy library returns a covariance matrix where columns represent different features and rows represent separate instances of the same feature. Therefore, passing a nx1 ...
• 121
1 vote
584 views

### Numpy and Statmodel issue - LinAlgError - Singular Matrix

I have seen other topics on this, but I couldn't get their solutions working for me. Perhaps someone else will know why. namely: statsmodels: error in kde on a list of repeated values However, my ...
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93 views

### Stats Model contingency table, unable to reshape data and run test for nd array 2 x 2 x k

Consider below list of 2×2 tables and CMH (Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel) test results. We are trying to determine if each specific centre was associated with the success of the treatment [Data from Agresti,...
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