# Questions tagged [numpy]

NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific computing with Python.

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74 views

### Exploding coefficients in a Linear Regression Model with single input

This is my first post here, so tips are appreciated for future posts! For homework in my CS course I wanted to build a very simple Linear Regression Model (although this was not explicitly required) ...
36 views

### A simple probability model for an epidemic simulation

I'm creating a epidemic simulation program in Python, but I'm stuck trying to determine the probability of being infected (if exposed). I have an m x n grid with 0's and '1 (0's represent healty cells,...
16 views

### How to subset a binary matrix to maximize the number of unique elements while minimizing duplicates?

I’m trying to optimize a matrix by subsetting rows and then performing a calculation on the subsetted rows. The calculation is representing each of the columns exactly once and having as few ...
16 views

### Should I ignore the left out samples or insert padding during batch processing data

So I'm trying to use Weighted Binary Cross Entropy Function. I'm trying to calculate the weights for each class. I have 14 of them them in the target variable. I'm using the following function for ...
1 vote
25 views

### Construct a symmetric confidence interval for the acceleration coefficient [closed]

A machine model is tested in the factory to check the acceleration coefficient. The experiment selects n machines of this model and measures the distance traveled by the machine in 38 seconds. It is ...
77 views

### How to interpret NearestNeighbor results obtained using cosine similarity for tf-idf vectors

Why is the top result obtained using cosine similarity extremely close to 0 not the expected 1? That implies complete orthogonality. Data: 100k documents/rows with 2000 features(TF_IDF values of ...
101 views

### How to use learning curves and cross-validation?

My aim is to prove whether there is overfitting or underfitting. However, when I calculate the learning curves (graphically depict how a process is improved), the standard deviation of the cross-...
111 views

### normalizing euclidean distance

I asked a question in SO but was told it is more appropriate here. I'm trying to compute the euclidean distance with vectors of different lengths. ...
794 views

### How do you sample from a half-normal distribution in Python? [closed]

I would like to generate samples from a half normal distribution. numpy's random number generator allows you to sample from many distributions. Here's an example for the normal distribution. However, ...
117 views

### Fisk distribution in SciPy

According to Wikipedia, the Fisk distribution has two parameters, scale $\alpha$, and shape $\beta$. However, SciPy has only c as the shape parameter. If I am given ...
1 vote
577 views

### Python/numpy - conditional sampling of variables, distribution of subsequent value is based on result of previous value

I am trying to generate a random sample of multiple variables which are loosely related to each other. Meaning that "allowed" values of some variables depend on the value which is set for ...
1 vote
153 views

### How to calculate the equilibrium (initial probability) for second order HMM in python?

I have a transition matrix looks like: ...
191 views

### Generating multivariate random variable with normal and exponential marginals

I have a collection of data points of the form $[U, V, X, Y]$, where $U$ ~ $N(\mu_1, \sigma_1)$; $V$ ~ $N(\mu_2, \sigma_2)$; $X$ ~ $exp(\lambda_1)$; and $Y$ ~ $exp(\lambda_2)$, and I am looking to ...
1 vote
125 views

### Logistic regression with SGD getting low error with high learning rate

The thing is that I am implementing LR with SGD. Here is my cross error function: ...
277 views

### Regression analysis with max value

I am trying to find the best curve that will describe my data. my data are stored in numpy arrays of t and dur they are both in ...
3k views

### Statistically compare two large continuous datasets

I have multiple images with 1 band/channel. This of an RGB image, then I only have the blue band/channel. In other words, multiple 1D datasets, or multiple 1D arrays. I would like to statistically ...
1 vote
1k views

### Gradient of a multivariate function numpy

I'm trying to calculate the gradient of multivariate function g using NumPy. g = lambda w: -np.sin(np.pi*np.sum(w**2)) + np.log(np.sum(w**2)) ...
1 vote
507 views

### Positive semi definite matrix with negative eigenvalues?

From what I know, for any square real matrix A, a matrix generated with the following should be a positive semidefinite (PSD) matrix: ...
1 vote
44 views

### Working with sparse data in numpy and sklearn [closed]

I have a time series dataset geenrated from some electrophysiological data. I have a frequncy dataset and the matrix is quite sparse but huge, like it contains 0.005 s time bins for 2000+ neurons ...
482 views

### RMSE, MAE and MAPE reduced but RMSPE increased after removing outliers in linear regression

I am using a linear regression model with 465 datapoints to predict crop yield of wheat. The data points are spilt into training and testing sets in 80:20 ratio. Initially, I tried linear regression ...
65 views

### Sklearn PCA projection differences while reproducing projection sample by sample

I've been stuck on this issue due to inability to reproduce the performance of PCA-classification pipeline on training data, but in case the pipeline receives one sample at a time. This seems to be ...
1 vote
131 views

### How do I get the stationary distribution of a Markov chain matrix from SVD?

I have a matrix that represents a Markov chain. ...
1 vote
61 views

### Probability of drawing N elements from M elements with per element draw probability without replacement

I have a list of M elements with per element draw probability, summing to 1.0. Example (M=10): L = [0.3, 0.2, 0.01, 0.05, 0.02, 0.02, 0.2, 0.05, 0.05, 0.1] Now I ...
763 views

### How to sample from non-gaussian dataset [duplicate]

Let's say I have a small dataset (normalized), that doesn't necessarily follow a gaussian distribution. We can see that by plotting it on a simple histogram. There is clearly a bias. There is also a ... 109 views

### I'm performing a multi linear regression on the The Oxford Covid-19 Government Response Tracker. I have a couple of doubts about the process

I hope this is the right place to ask this. I'm currently working my way through a dataset and performing Multiple Linear Regression on it. The data is for Oxford Governement Response Tracker for the ...
1 vote
241 views

### Behaviour of intralayer (lateral) connections in neural network during training

I am interested in experimenting with some very simple neural network architectures by building them in numpy. I have followed a course in how to build a feed-forward multilayer neural network in ...
7k views

### How can i get the phase difference between two frequencies?

I have two signals of the same frequency. Both have frequencies of 13.56Mhz, and I want to find the phase difference between these two frequencies. The function generator generates a sinusoidal ... 3k views

### How to sample from truncated distributions using scipy?

I have min and max values for certain variables such as: Expenses Loss Growth I'd like to add a distribution around them and plot a histogram in python. Distribution could be beta, gamma right type ...
423 views

### How to create and solve a underdetermined nonlinear system of equations using python

as i already mentioned in the header my plan is to create and solve a system of nonlinear equations in python. As I also mentioned, the equations system will be underdetermined. I will try to give an ...
75 views

### Standard deviation cap crosses zero

Let's say I have some reference data and some predicted data and I want to show the standard deviation of the mean absolute error. When I create error bar using numpy and matplotlib, errorbar crosses ...
1k views

### In Python, can I use mean, median, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, population size, and single sample to generate statistically identical data?

Example situation After each exam, the professor provides the following information. Minimum Score [Arithmetic] Mean Median Maximum Score Standard Deviation I also know what my score was as well as ...
164 views

### Visualize PCA, train or test?

I am new to PCA and have a question about visualization when it comes to fitting and transposing. I have two data, which are train and test. Here are four methods: ...
32 views

### What I have this rare output value of variance and standart deviation functions in numpy? [duplicate]

Hell i have nonsense values of variance and standart deviation in numpy. this documentation no make sense with this sample. https://numpy.org/doc/stable/reference/generated/numpy.std.html youtube ...
2k views

### When does MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) fail?

I have a multioutput regression model that predicts float values. When using MAPE to evaluate regression model performance (using either built in libraries or implementing a function for it) I am ...
1 vote
1k views

### Numpy.cov() in Python returning a matrix of NaN's instead of 0's [closed]

The cov() method from the numpy library returns a covariance matrix where columns represent different features and rows represent separate instances of the same feature. Therefore, passing a nx1 ...
1 vote
803 views

### Numpy and Statmodel issue - LinAlgError - Singular Matrix

I have seen other topics on this, but I couldn't get their solutions working for me. Perhaps someone else will know why. namely: statsmodels: error in kde on a list of repeated values However, my ...
167 views

### Stats Model contingency table, unable to reshape data and run test for nd array 2 x 2 x k

Consider below list of 2×2 tables and CMH (Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel) test results. We are trying to determine if each specific centre was associated with the success of the treatment [Data from Agresti,...
361 views

4k views

### Violin plot of 2 numpy arrays with seaborn

I would like to compare the distribution of 2 numpy arrays using a violin plot made with seaborn. The maximal value in both arrays is 1. The plot suggests a higher maximum. Am I misunderstanding the ...
34 views

### Neural network from scratch: only predicts training inputs correctly [duplicate]

Here is a neural network I've been working on. It takes in an array of four zeros or ones and predicts whether that pattern of zeros and ones is a backslash. ...