Questions tagged [numpy]

NumPy is the fundamental package for scientific computing with Python.

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Why does my amplitude change upon inverse Fourier Transform when I am only randomizing the phase of the fourier transform using Python numpy?

I am trying to make a surrogate time series of a discrete data series using python, basically I wish to keep the amplitude same and change the frequency I take a Fourier Transform of the data I ...
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9 views

Difference between plt.xcorr() at (1+)-lag and np.corrcoef()

I use plt.xcorr() function to plot cross-correlation between time series: ...
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32 views

How to create and solve a underdetermined nonlinear system of equations using python

as i already mentioned in the header my plan is to create and solve a system of nonlinear equations in python. As I also mentioned, the equations system will be underdetermined. I will try to give an ...
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1answer
19 views

Standard deviation cap crosses zero

Let's say I have some reference data and some predicted data and I want to show the standard deviation of the mean absolute error. When I create error bar using numpy and matplotlib, errorbar crosses ...
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9 views

Propagation of uncertanty with an example

I'm following a Regression and Other Stories book and exercices proposed. Do you agree with my proposed resolution? Unfortunately i've no solutions reference to verify if my calculation is correct. ...
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1answer
116 views

In Python, can I use mean, median, minimum, maximum, standard deviation, population size, and single sample to generate statistically identical data?

Example situation After each exam, the professor provides the following information. Minimum Score [Arithmetic] Mean Median Maximum Score Standard Deviation I also know what my score was as well as ...
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20 views

Binomial regression - Why counts matter?

I am new to binomial regression so this question may seem very basic. So I have data that fits for binomial regression (each row has n successes and ...
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0answers
32 views

Visualize PCA, train or test?

I am new to PCA and have a question about visualization when it comes to fitting and transposing. I have two data, which are train and test. Here are four methods: ...
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9 views

I do PCA manually with numpy in the same method as Scikit Learn and getting same values but different signs [duplicate]

It is asked me to do PCA manually. I wrote a code that does PCA in the same way as Scikit Learn PCA function, but even if I got the same values, some of the values had different signs. My code is <...
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28 views

What I have this rare output value of variance and standart deviation functions in numpy? [duplicate]

Hell i have nonsense values of variance and standart deviation in numpy. this documentation no make sense with this sample. https://numpy.org/doc/stable/reference/generated/numpy.std.html youtube ...
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120 views

When does MAPE (Mean Absolute Percentage Error) fail?

I have a multioutput regression model that predicts float values. When using MAPE to evaluate regression model performance (using either built in libraries or implementing a function for it) I am ...
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1answer
55 views

Numpy.cov() in Python returning a matrix of NaN's instead of 0's [closed]

The cov() method from the numpy library returns a covariance matrix where columns represent different features and rows represent separate instances of the same feature. Therefore, passing a nx1 ...
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86 views

Numpy and Statmodel issue - LinAlgError - Singular Matrix

I have seen other topics on this, but I couldn't get their solutions working for me. Perhaps someone else will know why. namely: statsmodels: error in kde on a list of repeated values However, my ...
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24 views

Why Welford’s method is not widely used in statistical library

I just learned about Welford’s method to compute standard deviation using only one pass. However, when I checked the source code of some statistical libraries (e.g., R stats and Numpy), they both use ...
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1answer
16 views

Stats Model contingency table, unable to reshape data and run test for nd array 2 x 2 x k

Consider below list of 2×2 tables and CMH (Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel) test results. We are trying to determine if each specific centre was associated with the success of the treatment [Data from Agresti,...
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67 views

Back-propagation for 2D convolution using automatic differentiation

I am trying to learn about back propagation for convolutional neural networks by implementing automatic differentiation using numpy. I can understand the intuition behind a 2D convolution layer; ...
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44 views

How to find out the interval within which probability of sample mean lying within $\pm a$ units of population mean is $0.95$ using Python?

I am a beginner in the field of statistics and data science, so request you to treat me kindly. I have to solve the following problem in python: Suppose the population variable $X$ is $\text{N}(3, 0....
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2answers
78 views

Proper shape of LSTM dataset for keras

I understand that similar questions have been asked before, but they are all based on specific examples. I want to consider a very simple example: we have a sequence of 1000 numbers, and want an LSTM ...
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20 views

How to find the percentage of values within a given range?

I am a beginner in the field of statistics and data science, so request you to treat me kindly. Problem statement - Variable X has a mean of 15 and a standard deviation of 2. What is the minimum ...
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1answer
73 views

Bounds for samples from the normal distribution using numpy.random.randn

I am new to both stats and scientific Python, so apologies if this question breaches any guidelines. I want to know what x = np.random.randn(500) actually does, in ...
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1answer
40 views

Probability of a point taken from a certain normal distribution will be less than or equal to than a point taken from another?

Suppose we have two independent normal distributions How do I calculate the probability of a certain point taken from distribution X1 being less than or equal to a ...
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1answer
720 views

How does numpy generate samples from a beta distribution?

numpy lets you generate random samples from a beta distribution (or any other arbitrary distribution) with this API: ...
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7 views

How might disparity in image format/quality between binary classifications affect training of CNN?

I have an image dataset containing two classes. One of the classes has many images and they are all JPG images with the following format: ...
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1answer
25 views

Clarification needed on gradients in backpropagation

I was going through this book "Practical Convolutional Neural Networks" and there under the backpropagation section, it demonstrates calculating the gradient for ...
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2answers
69 views

Generating statistical distributions and sorting them

I am creating two distributions as shown below. ...
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30 views

Calculating derivative of the activation function w.r.t input unit for Recurrent Neural Network(RNN)

Suppose we have the following structure of the RNN(many-to-one): where $\hat{y}(t)$ is a prediction at the end of the sequence, a(t) are hidden units and x(t) are input at each timestamp t. $s(t) = W^...
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28 views

Generating correlated samples from bernoulli variables [duplicate]

I am trying to implement a program that samples from two identically distributed Bernoulli random variables, $X_1$ and $X_2$, such that they have a specific correlation coefficient, $\rho$. I found a ...
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21 views

time complexity of sampling from multivariate hypergeometric distribuiton

numpy has an implementation and the doc is here. It says it is "roughly" equivalent to: ...
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2answers
775 views

Violin plot of 2 numpy arrays with seaborn

I would like to compare the distribution of 2 numpy arrays using a violin plot made with seaborn. The maximal value in both arrays is 1. The plot suggests a higher maximum. Am I misunderstanding the ...
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33 views

Neural network from scratch: only predicts training inputs correctly [duplicate]

Here is a neural network I've been working on. It takes in an array of four zeros or ones and predicts whether that pattern of zeros and ones is a backslash. ...
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30 views

Predicting new values after feature scaling

I am trying to do linear regression with one feature only: predicting height with weights. Gradient descent took too many epochs so I used a min max scaler and it converged to the optimum point pretty ...
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0answers
68 views

Basic RNN sequence classifier diagram?

I'd like to build an RNN in numpy from scratch to really get come comfortable with backpropagation through time (BPTT.) In the below diagram and LaTeX, I show two neurons, each with a non-linearity, N(...
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2answers
57 views

Why sampling different random variables sequencially using the same PRNG alters the sequence that would be obtained if only one was sampled?

When using random variables in most programming languages the usual process is based on instatiating a RandomGenerator which will output an stream of pseudo-random numbers and with this stream the ...
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5answers
48 views

Neural network based on twitter followers, what would be my features?

I was thinking of training a neural network that would be able to classify twitter users according to their followers. For example, I would like to know if a user is "gamer" or not by the people they ...
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1answer
759 views

representing quantile like quartile in form of normal distribution curve

I learned in statistics the first quartile, 2nd quartile, and 3rd quartile can be represented in the figure1 below I came across this part of the article Step 4 - Feature Engineering.In this portion ...
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1answer
1k views

How to plot the prior, posterior and likelihood function from given data in python [closed]

I wrote a simple bayesian program which calculates prior, posterior and likelihood in python. ...
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1answer
241 views

Does normalization also help to prevend the vanish/exploding gradients?

I am implementing my own neural network from scratch using numpy. I tested my code with the MNIST dataset and I forgot to normalize the images and my code did not work, because I got an error about a ...
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1answer
56 views

How to make predictions with libmf using python? [closed]

I'm trying to implement libmf library in python. I tried with the following example: ...
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1answer
15 views

Stnadard deviation of values containing different ranges

Taking the $\sigma$ of these values : np.std([55,50,40,45]) returns: 5.59 If I take the $\sigma$ of these values: ...
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0answers
16 views

Weights between the Last 2 layers keep getting negative

TL;DR weights between the last 2 layers keep getting negative to the point that the softmax(z) of the output layer can't divide by zero ( e^-750 ~= 0 thus deciding by 0) I am making a Neural Network ...
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1answer
460 views

How to get the variance between two arrays?

import numpy as np a = np.array([[1,2,4],[2,4,8]]) np.var(a) output: 5.25 Can anyone enlight me what's the calculation process to get variance = 5.25?
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21 views

Gaussian mixture models for image matrix not determining E step

I want to calculate responsibility for each of the data points, for the given MU, SIGMA and PI. ...
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1answer
313 views

Interpreting scipy.stats: ks_2samp and mannwhitneyu give conflicting results

I've encountered conflicting results between ks_2samp and mannwhitneyu while trying to compare two empirical distributions, ...
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0answers
52 views

Estimate joint probability of two dependent variable

I've a dataset created in the following way: The input of the system is a 8 bit binary number ranging from $x_1$= 0000 0000 to $x_N$ = 1111 1111 For every input i've read the output of the system (...
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0answers
178 views

Generate random values to mimic skewness

I have a actual set of data where the variables are heavily skewed, both positively and negatively. I need to generate random sample data for the values going forward. The data needs to be similarly ...
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1answer
64 views

Feeding multiple rows of data into ANN [closed]

I've built an ANN from scratch, that works with one row of data with any number of neurons and hidden layers. For the setup I am using 2 hidden layers, 5 neurons (just while building). The network ...
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0answers
132 views

Infinitesimal generator of Markov chain using numpy

I am computing the infinitesimal generator of a continuous-time Markov chain from the transition probabilities p. I am following the methodology described here, ...
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2answers
621 views

Transforming data for normality with negative values using python

I am working with a data set in a machine learning project, which has lots to negative values. I want to transform the distribution of my data to normal. I tried using numpy.log, but since log is only ...
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0answers
17 views

Can't Recreate Values for U, S, V from SVD in numpy [duplicate]

To better understand SVD, I'm trying to recreate the values for U, S, and V using straight ...