# Questions tagged [ordinal-data]

Data with categorical values that can be ordered by magnitude, but the exact distance (spacing) between categories is undefined or unknown.

164 questions
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
70k views

### What are good basic statistics to use for ordinal data?

I have some ordinal data gained from survey questions. In my case they are Likert style responses (Strongly Disagree-Disagree-Neutral-Agree-Strongly Agree). In my data they are coded as 1-5. I don'...
• 1,569
124k views

### Under what conditions should Likert scales be used as ordinal or interval data?

Many studies in the social sciences use Likert scales. When is it appropriate to use Likert data as ordinal and when is it appropriate to use it as interval data?
• 1,131
43k views

### Is there Factor analysis or PCA for ordinal or binary data?

I have completed the principal component analysis (PCA), exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), treating data with likert scale (5-level responses: none, a little, ...
• 453
49k views

### How to handle ordinal categorical variable as independent variable

I am using a logit model. My dependent variable is binary. However I have an independent variable which is categorical and contains the responses: ...
• 331
69k views

### Graph for relationship between two ordinal variables

What is an appropriate graph to illustrate the relationship between two ordinal variables? A few options I can think of: Scatter plot with added random jitter to stop points hiding each other. ...
24k views

### Correlation coefficient between a (non-dichotomous) nominal variable and a numeric (interval) or an ordinal variable

I've already read all the pages in this site trying to find the answer to my problem but no one seems to be the right one form me... First I explain you the kind of data I'm working with... Let's ...
• 193
32k views

### Continuous dependent variable with ordinal independent variable

Given a continuous dependent variable y and independent variables including an ordinal variable X1, how do I fit a linear model in R? Are there papers about this ...
• 2,061
59k views

### Does it ever make sense to treat categorical data as continuous?

In answering this question on discrete and continuous data I glibly asserted that it rarely makes sense to treat categorical data as continuous. On the face of it that seems self-evident, but ...
• 1,898
26k views

### Logistic regression and ordinal independent variables

I have found this post: Yes. The coefficient reflects the change in log odds for each increment of change in the ordinal predictor. This (very common) model specification assumes the the predictor ...
• 133
42k views

### Calculate mean of ordinal variable

I've read in a number of places that calculating the mean of an ordinal variable is inappropriate. I'm trying to get an intuition for why it might be inappropriate. I think it is because, in general, ...
• 14.3k
28k views

### Group differences on a five point Likert item

Following on from this question: Imagine that you want to test for differences in central tendency between two groups (e.g., males and females) on a 5-point Likert item (e.g., satisfaction with life: ...
7k views

### Is Amazon's "average rating" misleading?

If I understand correctly, book ratings on a 1-5 scale are Likert scores. That is, a 3 for me may not necessarily be a 3 for someone else. It's an ordinal scale IMO. One shouldn't really average ...
• 14.6k
37k views

### How do you estimate correlations between ordinal and binary data in SPSS?

I'm struggling with my lab report. I have a questionnaire which contains Likert responses (1-7) as well as questions that require only yes or no answers. I want to see if there is a correlation ...
• 71
6k views

### Non-parametric measure of strength of association between an ordinal and a continuous random variable

I'm throwing here the problem as I received it. I have two random variables. One of which is continuous (Y) and the other one which is discrete and will be approached as ordinal (X). I put below the ...
• 22.6k
3k views

### Should types of data (nominal/ordinal/interval/ratio) really be considered types of variables?

So for instance here are the definitions that I get from standard text books Variable - characteristic of population or sample. ex. Price of a stock or grade on a test Data - actual ...
• 135
13k views

### Can binary data be ordinal?

Binary data is often mentioned as a nominal sub-category, especially in such examples as female/male, smoker/non-smoker, etc. However, binary data with such values as pass/fail, correct/incorrect, ...
496 views

### Analysis for ordinal categorical outcome

I am not sure how to evaluate my data correctly, since the outcome (dependent variable) is on an ordinal categorical scale and there are two independent variables. To simplify my experiment: Each ...
• 143
13k views

### Logit with ordinal independent variables

In a logit model, is there a smarter way to determine the effect of an independent ordinal variable than to use dummy variables for each level?
• 1,200
34k views

### How to correctly assess the correlation between ordinal and a continuous variable?

I'd like to estimate the correlation between: An ordinal variable: subjects are asked to rate their preference for 6 types of fruit on a 1-5 scale (ranging from very disgusting to very tasty) On ...
• 181
30k views

### How to transform ordinal data from questionnaire into proper interval data?

Are there any straightforward methods of transforming ordinal level data into interval level (just as there are for doing it the other way round)? And performable in Excel or SPSS? Having the data, ...
• 151
5k views

### Reporting Results of Mann-Whitney U Test - Means vs Medians

I had a question yesterday that I got a bunch of great responses on. I have, hopefully, a quicker question here. There is a debate in the literature regarding reporting means vs medians in a ...
• 303
36k views

### Correlation between two ordinal categorical variables

What is the best statistical test for investigating if there is any correlation between 2 categorical variables? Both are satisfaction scores: 1st variable is: Overall satisfaction with the service. ...
• 330
17k views

### Treating ordinal variables as continuous for regression problems

In the social sciences I have encountered that it is common to treat ordinal variables as continuous, for example variables originating from rating or Likert scales (strongly disagree, disagree, agree,...
• 599
9k views

### Factor analysis for ordinal variables that have different categories

I have a data set that contains about 40 categorical variables that are taken as independent variables (and believed to be related to some unobservable human resource factors) and 4 categorical ...
• 3,595
5k views

### Regression on a non-normal dependent variable

I need to do a regression with a non-normal DV for which no proper non-linear transformation (that I know of) exists: It is a score ranging from 10 to 50, with a high peak at 10, a drop at 11 and a ...
• 2,129
455 views

### Are all attributes/data points inherently nominal?

I'm trying to design a statistics package in .NET, and I'd like to apply object-oriented design principles to some of the data structures that I'm developing. As I look through sample data sets for ...
• 585
3k views

### What is the difference between independence.test in R and Cochrane and Armitage trend test?

What is the difference between independence.test in R and CATT (Cochrane and Armitage) tests? How these tests are calculated? Where do we and how do we define x=0....
• 693
11k views

### Correlational study or ordinal data using 5-point Likert scale

How do I calculate the correlation using ordinal data based on a 5-point Likert scale associating perioperative education to patient satisfaction scores? A numerical value (...
3k views

### Develop a statistical test to distinguish two products

I have a data set from a customer survey, I want to deploy a statistical test to see whether there is significance difference between product 1 and product 2. Here is a data set of customers' reviews....
• 113
18k views

### Regression with rank order as dependent variable

I have data on 44 firms that have all been ranked by an expert. The "best" firm has rank 1, the second best has rank 2, ..., the last one has rank 44. I have a bunch of explanatory variables and ...
5k views

### Jonckheere-Terpstra interpretation

I am running the Jonckheere-Terpstra in place of Kruskal-Wallis test, as my factor is in ordinal scale (i.e. groups can be ordered). The Asymptotic significance (2-tailed) is 0.000, so it seems there ...
• 193
1k views

### Scoring predictions of an ordinal variable

I read about using scoring rules to evaluate the performance of predictive models. In the Wikipedia article about the Brier score, it is stated: The Brier score is appropriate for binary and ...
1 vote
1k views

### Analyzing relationships between ordinal and continuous time series data

I have two sets of time series data - roleTrajectories & normalizedDegree. The former data set contains ordinal rankings of subjects' positions within a network at 13 time periods. The latter data ...
• 195
154k views

### How to deal with non-binary categorical variables in logistic regression (SPSS)

I have to do binary logistic regression with a lot of independent variables. Most of them are binary, but a few of the categorical variables have more than two levels. What is the best way to deal ...
• 1,070
5k views

### Factor scores from discrete, ordinal responses

Is there a principled way to estimate factor scores when you have ordinal, discrete variables. I have $n$ ordinal, discrete, variables. If I make the assumption that underlying each response is a ...
• 1,200
18k views

### Factor analysis on mixed (continuous/ordinal/nominal) data?

What approaches are there to perform FA on data that is clearly ordinal (or nominal for that matter) by nature? Should the data be transformed our are there readily available ...
• 1,152
4k views

### What is Polychoric Correlation Coefficient intuitively?

There is clear meaning of Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient: it is cosine of angle between two vectors based on variables. Also there are 12 other ways to clearify the meaning of ...
• 457
16k views

### Cluster analysis of ordinal variables (Likert scale)

I want to do clustering of my data in R, using kmeans or hclust (I am a new R user). My data is ordinal, Likert scale, to measure the causes of cost escalation. I have 41 causes "variables" that ...
4k views

### Rank transformed 2-way ANOVA

I know I'm asking a lot of questions these days! Sorry about that, but I'm trying to work through my grad thesis data collected over the last 4 years, and am repeatedly tripping on my beginner's grasp ...
• 1,241
355 views

### Testing the importance of an item among a finite set of items

Consider the following survey question: Q: How would you classify the importance for you of the following 5 items: A B C D E Assign to each item a number in the ...
• 425
6k views

### Including ordinal independent variables in a linear mixed effects model (using the lme4 package in R)

I am analyzing data from cohort of 500 calves investigating the impact of disease on growth. My outcome variables are normally distributed, continuous data. I am using hierarchical models with calf ...
• 61
4k views

### What to do with non-normality and heterogeneous variances in two-way ANOVA when transformations do not work?

I'm conducting a Two-Way ANOVA with my two factors being Sex and Cohort. I have data from two cohorts of subjects, with each cohort consisting of males and females that were measured on one response ...
• 51
706 views

### Generalised Residuals - Estimated value of the density at that point for observation $j$ $i$?

I am trying to write R code for the generalised residuals as described in Vella (1993) and also mentioned by Wooldridge (2014). Wooldridge suggests to use these ...
• 478
6k views

### Parametric tests and Likert Scales (Ordinal data) - Two different views

Following articles reach quite different conclusion and I start to believe that there is no clear answer to this problem. The conclusions are below and the first author reacts on second author. My ...
• 225
15k views

### Cluster analysis on ordinal data

I'd like to perform a cluster analysis on ordinal data (Likert scale) by using SPSS. I have around 140 observations and 20 variables that are scaled from 1 to 5 (1: I strongly agree, 3: neutral, 5: I ...
• 195
386 views

### Different Types of Data

According to my Elementary statistics for Business and Economics text book revised Edition 2012 . Under a section concerning the Different types of Data . This text book says that under Quantitative ...
1k views

### Multinomial logit regression with ordinal independent variables

I've got some ordinal variables b and a and a categorized variable c. I would like to fit a multinomial logit regression from the library car. I tried to ignore the ordinal scale. I have the ...
• 305
1 vote
2k views

### How to get residuals from an ordinal logit/probit, and which ones to get

I stumbled upon this question on Stack, where someone asked how to get the residuals from a polr regression, to which Ben Bolker answers as follows: My question ...
• 478
1 vote