Questions tagged [p-value]

In frequentist hypothesis testing, the $p$-value is the probability of a result as extreme (or more) than the observed result, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.

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statistical significance for non linear data

I have a data-set with two independent (continuous) variables: temperature (1, 3, 6 degrees) and nutrient concentration (~ 9-1400) and one dependent variable (length), with replicates (three ...
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How to get p values (through some sort of bootstrapping method) using rlmer (robust lmm package) in r? [closed]

Tried using MCMC, pkbr, bootmer, and all the other standard techniques but none are compatible. Any suggestions?
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Why is the p-value so low here?

I have the following code using statsmodels ...
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94 views

gam() p-value seems to be unreliable - why and how?

I'm investigating the effect of overhead cover (tree canopy) on the proportion of birds scavenging on carcasses left out in nature. These data are taken from different national parks with different ...
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Extracting result from a GARCH model implemented tests in R [closed]

How can I extract the resuslts of the tests embedded in the output of a GARCH model from the package rugarch (i.e. I need the p-values from the goodness of fit test ...
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1answer
38 views

Benjamini-Hochberg procedure with equally ranked p-values

I struggling with Benjamini-Hochberg correction due to equally ranked p-values and I would gladly appreciate some help. My problem is as follow: I've got 11 comparisons to do and the threshold is set ...
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May each parameter's test statistics in regression be related to different distributions?

When I run a linear regression, the parameters are all tested whether they're zero using t-test. In some other regression, all parameters are tested whether they're zero using z-test. Is there some ...
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how can i calculate p value of data set in R? [closed]

i have given data set of miRNA sequence raw read counts. want to analyze data set using p value. How can i calculate p value of given data set?
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2answers
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Why are p-values probabilities rather than likelihoods?

The p-value is the probability of obtaining test results at least as extreme as the results actually observed during the test, assuming that the null hypothesis is correct. Why is the p-value a ...
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1answer
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What does X²(1, N=100) =6.83, p =0.009 mean?

I am reading scientific research (Link) and stumbled upon the following notation: X²(1, N=100)=6.83, p =0.009. An explanation is given as follows: ...
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2answers
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positive correlation but p value is 0.152 [closed]

I have a positive correlation but my p-value is 0.152 am I being stupid or can any help it's kinda urgent
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2answers
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Is this just a consequence of Publication bias or has a name of its own? [duplicate]

Scenario: In our world, only statistically significant ($p<0.05$) results are published, everything else is rejected or not even handed in. Let's now assume an experiment is $100$ times conducted ...
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Backward feature elimination removes significant one-sided associations?

I’m fitting data to a linear regression model. In the end, I want a model that only includes significant IVs with p values <= 0.05, so I’m looping through and at each iteration removing the IV with ...
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how can I get the P-value for each parameter in vasicek model then do the simulation in Excel? [duplicate]

I use the solver in Excel to estimate the parameter, the out put is b=0.001153,a=0.095516,sigma=0.0013. I follow the steps at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X17cpkkwG_4 The method is the Maximium ...
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P value significance in R [duplicate]

I understand that this p value: < 2e-16 is significant But is this p value: 1.4e-05 significant? I'm not sure how you can tell / what the 'e' means. Any help appreciated, thanks.
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1answer
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Comparing time series data between three treatment groups (in R)

I have time series data where the response is decreasing over time. The rate of the decrease is supposed to depend on the treatment (the concentration of a drug). By looking at the data I am not sure ...
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1answer
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What to report when p-values of Standardized and Unstandardized Beta disagree?

I am testing the following models. Volumes were purposely log10 transformed to examine brain allometry. ...
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1answer
46 views

R Displaying Incorrect Significance Level?

In the following output, predictor variable has a p-value of 0.001809 but is indicated to be significant at the 0.001 level as it has '**' displayed next to it. Surely given that the p-value is ...
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What should be statistically significant game score in football and basketball to say that one team stronger?

4 teams play 2 games: football and basketball. (2 games just to better understand theory) Final result of a football game is 2:1 Final result of basketball game is 101:96 What should be the result ...
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1answer
43 views

When to drop correlated features?

I have a dataset focused on binary classification with 60 features and 5k records. Am trying to 1) find the risk factors using statsmodel logistic regression (I do this because it's important to ...
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40 views

The uniform distribution of p-value under null hypothesis [duplicate]

Suppose z is a continuous random variable and follows a certain distribution We define φ(x)=p(z>=x), where x is a continuous random variable It can be proved that the continuous random variable φ(x) ...
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2answers
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Why does the constant term have a P value in statistical programs?

I notice when running regressions in programs such as Stata that the constant term has a p value. Why and what does this p value represent?
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1answer
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P-value calculation

I am trying to build P-value calculation within Tableau for A/B tests and found a formula. But the formula doesn't work all the time. ...
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1answer
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compare correlation between two matrices

We have two algorithms that assign a score to the foreground of how well it fits the background. And we want to know which algorithm is closer to human perception. Then we collect an evaluation set ...
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Recommended terminology 'statistically significant'

Following the recent ASA and other comments on p-values and not using the term "statistically significant" what is the recommendation for presenting the results of an analysis? For example if I ...
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Question regarding p-value adjustment for multiple comparison across multiple experiment

This is my first question and it's about p-value adjustment for multiple comparison in the setting we conducted multiple experiments. We performed several viral infection experiment in specified ...
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1answer
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How to get P-Values of Categorical Features?

I have dataframe which contains numerical and categorical features. I am trying to get p-values of these variables using OLS. I'm creating dummies to get p-values of categorical features. But in this ...
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One Wald test p-value for many regressions

I have to replicate a paper and I got stuck with getting an overall Wald test p-value from 69 separate regressions. My data is explained here: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/59150321/create-lead-...
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1answer
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Problem in interpretation of result of Pearson chi-square?

We are conducting research to examine a relationship between some triggers and migraine with aura. the sample obtained by a questionnaire to and the sample classified into two categories (diagnosed ...
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1answer
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Can I say one models Spearman coefficient is better than that of another model based on their respective p-values?

Is it possible to determine whether one model's Spearman rank is significantly better than that of another model based on the p-values for each? Let's say that I have model 1: $\rho_s$ = 0.9, p-...
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1answer
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Question on the Friedman test and statistical significance

I have 322 clothing items that have been ordered by our military from 2013 to 2018. Each military member is either in a Tier 1 or Tier 2 location. I ran Friedman tests on each individual item over ...
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1answer
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p-value and confidence interval of hazard ratio disagree - why?

In survival analysis, sometimes the p-value < 0.05 but the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio covers 1.0. In this case, we would choose to believe the confidence interval more than the p-...
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How can I calculate the p-value of two balls coming together or apart from each other?

There are N buckets. There are Na buckets with a red ball, Nb buckets with a blue ball. What's the possibility (p-value) for that there are K buckets with both a red and a blue ball? Here is one ...
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1answer
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Finding a reliable P-value and pseudo $R^2$ for beta regression in R (betareg model)

I'm having trouble with finding a reliable P-value for my beta regression in R. I thought it was as easy as reading it from the summary table, but as it turns out ...
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2answers
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Chi-square Test with High Sample Size and Unbalanced Data

I have a data set which has high values. I want to make a chi-square test on this set. +--------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ +----------+ | 15-19 | 20-24 | 25-29 ...
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1answer
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How do I work out the p-value of many click through rates

I have a table which shows pages and click through rates, and I need to know whether a page's performance is down to chance or does perform well. Table looks like: ...
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Help choose correct test

I have N random samples $x_i$ from an unknown probability distribution $A$, and 1 random sample $y$ from another unknown distribution $B$. The distributions can be assumed to be continuous and well-...
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1answer
22 views

How to derive p value of whether there exists a difference (given before and after correlation, averages, and standard deviations)?

I am trying to solve the following question: A chemical refining process is monitored before and after the plant is shut down and cleaned. At 40 randomly selected outputs, before cleaning, ...
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AIC vs. p-values for coefficients of an ARIMA model

Do the p values associated with ARIMA coefficients have any significance attached to them particularly when they are small? To be precise, can it happen that for an ARIMA(2,0,0) model the lag 2 ...
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Null hypothesis in Cox regression with a conflict between confidence intervals and P-values

Apologise for the simple question, I would just like to sanity check the interpretation of two results before I discuss them with a group of biologists. I have two results from Cox regression: ...
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Statistical difference in stacked barpplot

I created a stacked barchart and would like to test statistical differences among each bar (a sample of 500 respondents answered on a 4 categorical questions): What I want to do is test whether "...
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Power function versus p-value for a normal test of means

In my lecture notes, the power function under a test with rejection region $R$ is defined as: $ \beta(\theta) = P_{\theta} ((X_1 ,..., X_n) \in R) $ and the p-value is defined as $ p = inf(\alpha $ : ...
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Understanding one- vs two tailed tests from simulated data [closed]

Simulation has helped me a lot in my understanding of inferential statistics. But I have hit a roadblock and need help filling-in the gaps in my knowledge. Given test and control samples of data, I ...
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2answers
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What exactly is the test called for the significance of a correlation?

I am not sure if it even has a name, but when we look at the p-value for example from scipy.stats.pearsonr what is the test name that is used to test for the null ...
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2answers
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Huge sample sizes, tests, and deviation of assumptions?

I am performing Wilcoxon test (but in theory it can be any) and sometimes my sample sizes are huge. Even a single outlier may cause an extremely low p value. I am not interested in small effects at ...
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1answer
32 views

Trying to find regression & p-value for every row of a csv file in R [closed]

Hi I'm fairly new to R and am having some trouble with trying to do linear regression per row. Someone suggested I post to Cross Validated as well so here's my problem:- I can't attach the actual ...
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0answers
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How can I calculate pt, without r? [duplicate]

The question is how the following function is calculated: 2*pt(abs(7.376), 17-2, lower.tail=FALSE) How can calculate PT, with that data without use R? Thanks
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p-value in restricted cubic splines regression

How to calculate the p for overall and p for nonlinearity for a RCS model in STATA? Like what they did in this picture.
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Do results above p value 0.1 need to be discussed?

I am studying the effect of X on different diseases. The X shows a significantly increased risk for let's say 2 diseases (good to report), but for the rest of the diseases, X shows increased risk but ...
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How can I calculate the new value of the mean and the sd?

I am trying to solve an exercise for doing a regression model. For doing it, I know the following formulas: ...