Questions tagged [p-value]

In frequentist hypothesis testing, the $p$-value is the probability of a result as extreme (or more) than the observed result, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.

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1answer
107 views

Bernoulli distribution p-value shortcut

I am trying to evaluate the impact of a hypothetical treatment that has a binary outcome (adverse health event or no event). I have ten thousand of simulated "studies". I want to quickly identify ...
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3answers
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statistical significance for non linear data

I have a data-set with two independent (continuous) variables: temperature (1, 3, 6 degrees) and nutrient concentration (~ 9-1400) and one dependent variable (length), with replicates (three ...
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0answers
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gam() p-value seems to be unreliable - why and how?

I'm investigating the effect of overhead cover (tree canopy) on the proportion of birds scavenging on carcasses left out in nature. These data are taken from different national parks with different ...
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43 views

Should I trust AIC value or the p-value of linear regression model?

I have a linear model and when i run the stepwise variable selection, i got: ...
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1answer
28 views

p-values near 1.000 for all tests in a glm() (count and binary data, Poisson and binomial distributions)

I want to run multiple GLM's to answer a few questions about changes in diet between species and over time. Questions: Does frequency of occurrence (FO) of pieces eaten differ between species or ...
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2answers
48 views

How important is p-value in Machine Learning?

Scikit-Learn doesn't exhibit the p-values for your models. I'm used to look at the p-values - besides a few other factors - when choosing the variables to consider on my final model. However, p-values ...
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How to get p values (through some sort of bootstrapping method) using rlmer (robust lmm package) in r? [closed]

Tried using MCMC, pkbr, bootmer, and all the other standard techniques but none are compatible. Any suggestions?
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2answers
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Why is the p-value so low here?

I have the following code using statsmodels ...
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1answer
39 views

Benjamini-Hochberg procedure with equally ranked p-values

I struggling with Benjamini-Hochberg correction due to equally ranked p-values and I would gladly appreciate some help. My problem is as follow: I've got 11 comparisons to do and the threshold is set ...
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Extracting result from a GARCH model implemented tests in R [closed]

How can I extract the resuslts of the tests embedded in the output of a GARCH model from the package rugarch (i.e. I need the p-values from the goodness of fit test ...
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0answers
12 views

May each parameter's test statistics in regression be related to different distributions?

When I run a linear regression, the parameters are all tested whether they're zero using t-test. In some other regression, all parameters are tested whether they're zero using z-test. Is there some ...
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28 views

how can i calculate p value of data set in R? [closed]

i have given data set of miRNA sequence raw read counts. want to analyze data set using p value. How can i calculate p value of given data set?
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2answers
151 views

Why are p-values probabilities rather than likelihoods?

The p-value is the probability of obtaining test results at least as extreme as the results actually observed during the test, assuming that the null hypothesis is correct. Why is the p-value a ...
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1answer
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What does X²(1, N=100) =6.83, p =0.009 mean?

I am reading scientific research (Link) and stumbled upon the following notation: X²(1, N=100)=6.83, p =0.009. An explanation is given as follows: ...
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2answers
54 views

positive correlation but p value is 0.152 [closed]

I have a positive correlation but my p-value is 0.152 am I being stupid or can any help it's kinda urgent
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1answer
86 views

Why t-stat is normally reported but not p-value?

I just wonder why t-stat is normally reported with an asterisk to indicate significance but not p-value.
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571 views

How to interpret SPSS p-value for one tailed tests

Suppose H0 = Mean 1 - Mean 2 > or = 0 and HA = Mean 1 - Mean 2 < 0. We do an unpaired t-test in SPSS to get our p-value. The SPSS p-value is 0,534. This P-value is two tailed, so we have to devide ...
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2answers
58 views

Is this just a consequence of Publication bias or has a name of its own? [duplicate]

Scenario: In our world, only statistically significant ($p<0.05$) results are published, everything else is rejected or not even handed in. Let's now assume an experiment is $100$ times conducted ...
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0answers
8 views

Backward feature elimination removes significant one-sided associations?

I’m fitting data to a linear regression model. In the end, I want a model that only includes significant IVs with p values <= 0.05, so I’m looping through and at each iteration removing the IV with ...
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2answers
124 views

Why does the constant term have a P value in statistical programs?

I notice when running regressions in programs such as Stata that the constant term has a p value. Why and what does this p value represent?
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2answers
2k views

For what p-values can you say the data approached significance?

I am in the field of clinical psychology, where statistical significance is commonly said compared to p = .05. For what values of p can I say data APPROACHED significance?
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how can I get the P-value for each parameter in vasicek model then do the simulation in Excel? [duplicate]

I use the solver in Excel to estimate the parameter, the out put is b=0.001153,a=0.095516,sigma=0.0013. I follow the steps at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X17cpkkwG_4 The method is the Maximium ...
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P value significance in R [duplicate]

I understand that this p value: < 2e-16 is significant But is this p value: 1.4e-05 significant? I'm not sure how you can tell / what the 'e' means. Any help appreciated, thanks.
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1answer
283 views

P Value interpretation in K fold Validation

I am validating a credit risk model. I did a k fold validation to check the stability of the estimates. The estimates of the model are quite stable but the variables now have a high P value(above 0.1) ...
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2answers
33k views

Interpretation of the p-value of the y-intercept coefficient in a linear regression [duplicate]

I am trying to interpret one of the p-values in a one variable linear regression. Some of the answers I've seen for similar questions were not worded as thoroughly as I would have liked. My ...
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1answer
17 views

Comparing time series data between three treatment groups (in R)

I have time series data where the response is decreasing over time. The rate of the decrease is supposed to depend on the treatment (the concentration of a drug). By looking at the data I am not sure ...
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2answers
230 views

What should be statistically significant game score in football and basketball to say that one team stronger?

4 teams play 2 games: football and basketball. (2 games just to better understand theory) Final result of a football game is 2:1 Final result of basketball game is 101:96 What should be the result ...
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3answers
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Relative size of p values at different sample sizes

How does the relative size of a p value change at different sample sizes? Like if you got $p=0.20$ at $n=45$ for a correlation and then at $n=120$ you got the same p value of 0.20, what would be the ...
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1answer
73 views

What to report when p-values of Standardized and Unstandardized Beta disagree?

I am testing the following models. Volumes were purposely log10 transformed to examine brain allometry. ...
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1answer
46 views

R Displaying Incorrect Significance Level?

In the following output, predictor variable has a p-value of 0.001809 but is indicated to be significant at the 0.001 level as it has '**' displayed next to it. Surely given that the p-value is ...
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1answer
43 views

When to drop correlated features?

I have a dataset focused on binary classification with 60 features and 5k records. Am trying to 1) find the risk factors using statsmodel logistic regression (I do this because it's important to ...
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40 views

The uniform distribution of p-value under null hypothesis [duplicate]

Suppose z is a continuous random variable and follows a certain distribution We define φ(x)=p(z>=x), where x is a continuous random variable It can be proved that the continuous random variable φ(x) ...
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209 views

Bootstrapped post-hoc analyses for mixed effects models

I am using Linear Mixed Effects modelling (LMM) to test the effect of a single predictor 'Age' (a 4 level factor: "-1", "1", "3", or "8") on a logit-transformed response variable (percentage herbivory)...
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3answers
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Kolmogorov Smirnov Test Calculating the P Value Manually

So I'm trying to calculate the p value for a KS Test across some score data. I am using a variable called bad that is either 1 or 0 that splits the data into 2 samples effectively. I have run in SAS ...
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1answer
187 views

Explanation for p-value inequality

I was trying to go over this paper by Dudoit, Shaffer and Boldric when I came across this statement on page 78 (under section 2.4: Control of family-wise error rate): $P(P_j\leq x \vert H_j)\leq x,$ ...
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1answer
155 views

Controlling FDR when p-values are bimodal

I have a quick question about using the Benjamini-Hochberg procedure to control FDR using the p.adjust() function in R. I have read that in order to properly apply ...
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1answer
68 views

P-value calculation

I am trying to build P-value calculation within Tableau for A/B tests and found a formula. But the formula doesn't work all the time. ...
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1answer
26 views

compare correlation between two matrices

We have two algorithms that assign a score to the foreground of how well it fits the background. And we want to know which algorithm is closer to human perception. Then we collect an evaluation set ...
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1answer
746 views

Difference between p-values and error rate? [closed]

I know it's probably a basic question, but I'm relatively new to statistical analysis. When you have to reject a null hypothesis, or verify the design of a study, can you base your assumption on p-...
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6answers
1k views

Recommended terminology 'statistically significant'

Following the recent ASA and other comments on p-values and not using the term "statistically significant" what is the recommendation for presenting the results of an analysis? For example if I ...
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10answers
6k views

ASA discusses limitations of $p$-values - what are the alternatives?

We already have multiple threads tagged as p-values that reveal lots of misunderstandings about them. Ten months ago we had a thread about psychological journal that "banned" $p$-values, now American ...
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1answer
44 views

Can I say one models Spearman coefficient is better than that of another model based on their respective p-values?

Is it possible to determine whether one model's Spearman rank is significantly better than that of another model based on the p-values for each? Let's say that I have model 1: $\rho_s$ = 0.9, p-...
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9 views

Question regarding p-value adjustment for multiple comparison across multiple experiment

This is my first question and it's about p-value adjustment for multiple comparison in the setting we conducted multiple experiments. We performed several viral infection experiment in specified ...
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1answer
126 views

Probability that the p-value is less than 0.05 if H0 is true?

Suppose that under $H_0$, a measurement $X$ is $N(0,\sigma^2 )$, and that under $H_1$, $X$ is $N(1,\sigma^2 )$ and that the prior probability $P(H_0) = P(H_1)$. With $\sigma$ = 1, what is the ...
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1answer
354 views

How to minimize Chi-Square using the CDF instead of the PDF?

Suppose one has data that is suspected to obey a normal distribution. One computes a histogram of the data, and performs Pearson's Chi-Squared Test. To perform this test, one must compare the observed ...
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1answer
27 views

How to get P-Values of Categorical Features?

I have dataframe which contains numerical and categorical features. I am trying to get p-values of these variables using OLS. I'm creating dummies to get p-values of categorical features. But in this ...
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0answers
27 views

One Wald test p-value for many regressions

I have to replicate a paper and I got stuck with getting an overall Wald test p-value from 69 separate regressions. My data is explained here: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/59150321/create-lead-...
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1answer
39 views

Problem in interpretation of result of Pearson chi-square?

We are conducting research to examine a relationship between some triggers and migraine with aura. the sample obtained by a questionnaire to and the sample classified into two categories (diagnosed ...