# Questions tagged [proportion]

A proportion is the fraction of some total that is of a particular kind, either (i) as a count of one type of thing out of a total count, or (ii) as a component of a continuous variable.

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### What is the relationship between a chi squared test and test of equal proportions?

Suppose that I have three populations with four, mutually exclusive characteristics. I take random samples from each population and construct a crosstab or frequency table for the characteristics ...
25k views

### Fitting a binomial GLMM (glmer) to a response variable that is a proportion or fraction

I'm hoping somebody can help with what I think is a relatively simple question, and I think I know the answer but without confirmation it has become something I just can't be certain of. I have some ...
10k views

### Why use a z test rather than a t test with proportional data?

When testing the difference between 2 proportions why do we use a z-test rather than a t-test? Further, is there a simple way to conduct an omnibus test for significant differences between more ...
3k views

### Beta as distribution of proportions (or as continuous Binomial)

Beta distribution is related to binomial being also the distribution for order statistics. Probability mass function of binomial distribution is $$f(k) = {n \choose k} p^k (1-p) ^{n-k} \tag{1}$$ ...
3k views

### At What Level is a $\chi^2$ test Mathematically Identical to a $z$-test of Proportions?

BACKGROUND: Skip safely - it's here for reference, and to legitimize the question. The opening of this paper reads: "Karl Pearson’s famous chi-square contingency test is derived from another ...
40k views

### Exact two sample proportions binomial test in R (and some strange p-values)

I am trying to solve the following question: Player A won 17 out of 25 games while player B won 8 out of 20 - is there a significant difference between both ratios? The thing to do in R that ...
11k views

### What is the most appropriate way to transform proportions when they are an independent variable?

I thought I understood this issue, but now I'm not as sure and I'd like to check with others before I proceed. I have two variables, X and ...
3k views

### The $z$-test vs the $\chi^2$-test for comparing the odds of catching a cold in 2 groups

I just read in a rather well-respected (popular) science magazine (the German PM, 02/2013, p.36) about an interesting experiment (without a source, unfortunately). It caught my attention because ...
569 views

### Experimental Design on Testing Proportions

If you wanted to design an experiment to test the proportion of successes under two different strategies, and you had a fixed number of trials -- are you better off balancing the number of trials? (e....
10k views

### How to replicate Stata's robust binomial GLM for proportion data in R?

There is an example on how to run a GLM for proportion data in Stata here The IV is the proportion of students receiving free or reduced priced meals at school. The stata model looks like this.: <...
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### Difference estimate & confidence intervals for $\chi^2$ test between 2 proportions

I am using a chi-sq test between two proportions (http://statistic-on-air.blogspot.com/2009/07/comparison-of-two-proportions.html). I am using this over the z-test for proportions because I do not ...
3k views

### Analysing data measured as proportional composition

I have a data set on the proportional composition of marine substrate for different locations which I would like to compare. For example, one replicate transect within a location may be 50% sand, 25% ...
11k views