Questions tagged [quadratic-form]

A quadratic form is a homogeneous polynomial of order two.

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5 votes
2 answers
97 views

Is there any intuitive meaning to $\beta^T A \beta=1$?

In a statistical paper, I found that $\beta^T A \beta=1$, where $\beta$ and $A$ are a vector and matrix of constants, respectively. In the paper, the author utilizes only the $\beta$ that satisfies $\...
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1 vote
0 answers
105 views

Deriving ADF unit root test form for the time series with quadratic deterministic trend

I have the following time series process $y_t $ $$\Delta y_t = \delta + \gamma t + \epsilon_t$$ where $e_t$ is white noise process with the variance of $\sigma^2$. I guess that whereas $\Delta y_t$ is ...
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0 votes
0 answers
7 views

Confidence bounds for coefficients of a fit of data set obtained with another fit

I fitted an equation to a set of data points. Then I substracted the fit previously obtained to another set of data points. After that, I fitted another equation to this new data (result of the ...
1 vote
1 answer
44 views

How do I fit a constrained logistic regression model via quadratic programming in R?

I trying to find $\pi_{1}, \pi_{2}, \pi_{3}$ for model: $$ Y = \pi_{1}X_{1} + \pi_{2}X_{2} + \pi_{3}X_{3} + \epsilon, $$ with constraints: $\Sigma_{k}\pi_{k}=1$ and $\pi_{k}\geq0$. (All $\pi$ are ...
2 votes
0 answers
45 views

Derivation of the vertex value of quadratic term in GLM in R

I have a quadratic term in a GLM and I am interested in the vertex value (+ the standard error and confidence interval of the vertex) of the quadratic term. To my knowledge, there is no automatic ...
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0 votes
0 answers
31 views

Both quadratic and linear term are insignificant

I am trying to fit a model which has age as a control variable and mental health score as my dependent variable. I centered the age because 0 is not meaningful in my analysis. I tried age, age^2, log(...
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0 votes
1 answer
32 views

Quadratic Approximation for Log-Likelihood Ratio Processes, Why and How

I'm trying to understand why the quadratic equation can approximate the log likelihood ratio. Is this approximated using Taylor's series or normal distribution equation or anything else?
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0 votes
0 answers
14 views

how do I enforce a matrix is invertible when optimizing for it with MOSEK?

I am using MOSEK to optimize a quadratic objective with linear constraints (QP). One of the variables is a whole matrix. The matrix becomes non-invertible sometimes, which is not good for my needs. I ...
5 votes
2 answers
86 views

Proving $\sum_{i=1}^n(X_i-\overline X_n)^2-\sum_{i=1}^m(X_i-\overline X_m)^2 \sim \chi^2_{n-m}$

Suppose $X_1,X_2,\ldots,X_n$ are i.i.d $N(0,1)$ random variables. For $2\le m<n$, let $S_m^2=\sum_{i=1}^m(X_i-\overline X_m)^2$ and $S_n^2=\sum_{i=1}^n(X_i-\overline X_n)^2$ where $\overline X_m=\...
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2 votes
1 answer
97 views

How do I calculate the variance of a Hermitian form?

Suppose $\mathbf{x}\sim\mathcal{CN}\left(\mathbf{0},\mathbf{I}_n\right)$ is a circular complex Gaussian random vector, and $\mathbf{Q}$ is a Hermitian matrix. How do I calculate the variance of the ...
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1 vote
1 answer
107 views

Interaction between quadratic term and dummy variable

Suppose I have a linear regression: $Y=\beta_1+\beta_2X+\beta_3X^2+\beta_4D$ where $D$ is a dummy variable that takes value 0 and 1. If I want to examine if the effect of $X$ on $Y$ for $D=0$ and $D=1$...
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1 vote
0 answers
28 views

State space model equation

I would appreciate your help on the following I have a quadratic equation and need to write it in a state space format according to a model below. My equation is the following below, where T is the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
98 views

Distribution of $X'\Sigma^{-1}X$ for $X$ following a multivariate $t$ distribution

According to Golam Kibria & Joarder (2006, p.7) available here and Kotz & Nadarajah (2004, p. 19) visible in google, the distribution of $X'\Sigma^{-1}X /p$, for a known correlation matrix $\...
1 vote
0 answers
43 views

Partial derivative of a Group Lasso

I am looking at the gradient descent method for group lasso questions. Here's what I am currently stuck at. Given the quadratic form of the objective function: $$ f(x) = \frac{1}{2} x^T V x - m^T x + \...
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

whether $T_3$ has a chisquare distribution subject to a multiplicative constant

Suppose $X_1,...,X_n$ are random samples from $N(0, \sigma^2)$, and $\bar X_n = n^{-1}\sum_{i=1}^{n}X_i$. Let $Y =$ $Y_1 \choose {Y_2}$, where $Y_1 = X_1 - \bar X_n$, $Y_2 = X_2 - \bar X_n$, be a ...
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2 votes
1 answer
64 views

Expectation of the product of two independent random vectors and a positive-definite matrix

I am trying to compute the following: $\mathbb{E}[X^T\Omega^{-1}\epsilon]$, where $X$ is a random matrix, $\epsilon$ is a random vector, $\Omega$ is a real positive-definite matrix, and $\mathbb{E}[X^...
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1 vote
0 answers
36 views

Variance and Covariance of Fixed Effects expressed in Quadratic Form

I know that for a simple vector $x$ of length $n$, the variance of this vector $\sigma_x^2= \frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n} x_{i}^{2}-\left(\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^{n} x_{i}\right)^{2}$ can be written as $x^{\...
5 votes
1 answer
185 views

Expectation of double quadratic form

I want to compute the following expectation $E(\hat{Y_k}'A\hat{Y_l}\hat{Y_k}'A\hat{Y_l})$ where $A$ is a symmetric non-random matrix and $E(\hat{Y_k}) = Y_k$, $E(\hat{Y_l}) = Y_l$. Additionally, $\hat{...
1 vote
1 answer
42 views

Manipulation of quadratic form

How is this derivation obtained? It seems like it is possible to do so from first principles for using the series definition for quadratic form, but that seems tedious. Is there a faster way to ...
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1 vote
0 answers
40 views

Distribution of quadratic form?

Let $\mathbf{y = X \boldsymbol{\beta} + \epsilon}$, where $\mathbf{X} \in \mathcal{R}^{N\times p}$, $\boldsymbol\beta \in \mathcal{R}^p$ and $\boldsymbol{\epsilon} \sim N(0,\sigma^2 \mathbf{I}_N)$. ...
1 vote
0 answers
144 views

Multivariate Normal Quadratic MGF: Eigendecomposition to Matrix form

If $X \sim \mathcal{N}(\mu, \Sigma)$ is a multivariate normal, then the quadratic $X^TAX$ has moment generating function $$M_{X^TAX}(t)= \frac{1}{\sqrt{\det(I - 2tA\Sigma)}}\exp\left(-\frac{1}{2}\mu'[...
1 vote
1 answer
783 views

SVM loss function

I am going through Bishop's book and especially SVM. I am trying to understand the logic behind minimizing the specific loss $argmax_{\mathbf{w}} \frac{1}{2}||\mathbf{w}||^{2}$. On page 327, in 7.3 we ...
0 votes
0 answers
36 views

Combining two terms into a quadratic form

I have an objective function defined by $ min_{Y_{t}} \hspace{2mm} ||X_{t} - Y_{t}D_{t}^{T}||_{F}^{2} + \lambda_{2}\sum_{i,j} w_{i,j}||\mathbf{y}_{i} - \mathbf{p}_{j}^{t}||_{2}^{2}$ where capital $T$ (...
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6 votes
1 answer
241 views

Confidence interval from summary function

Here is a summary data from a texbook ...
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0 votes
0 answers
31 views

covariance of squared projections

Given a vector $x$ of independent mean-zero random variables, and two nonrandom orthogonal unit vectors $u,v$, does $u'v=0$ imply $cov(x'uu'x,x'vv'x)=0$? If so, what is the proof? If not, what happens ...
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0 votes
1 answer
741 views

Ridge and Quadratic Programming for Portfolio Norm Optimization

Much like this post: Quadratic Programming and Lasso, I'm trying to integrate RIDGE Penalty in a dedicated quadratic solver. In my case, I am working with quadprog from MATLAB. Unlike LASSO where you ...
1 vote
0 answers
147 views

Interpreting moderated quadratic effect in mixed effect models

I study the effect of the same stimulus ($X$), displaced in 4 different conditions (categorical $M$, categories=High, Medium, Low, in addition there is "Control" condition, as a reference ...
3 votes
0 answers
246 views

Interpretation: Adding quadratic term makes linear term insignificant (OLS regression)

I'm conducting a multiple OLS regression. My main model contains a significant effect (p < .5) of x on y. I want to test in a robustness check whether x is related to y in a curvilinear/quadratic ...
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1 vote
1 answer
2k views

How to plot quadratic model? [closed]

I have fit a polynomial glm in R with x and x^2 as the predictor of interest. ...
0 votes
0 answers
2k views

How to measure correlation in polynomial regression?

I have two variables that have a quadratic relationship. I can fit such an equation and get the R-squared, but how can I measure the degree to which the two variables are associated? Does a ...
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3 votes
2 answers
212 views

Prove independence of quadratic and linear form

Suppose $(X,Y)$ is bi-variate normal distribution with correlation $\rho$ and mean $(0,0)^T$ and both variances 1, and $(X_1,Y_1), (X_2,Y_2),...,(X_n,Y_n)$ is a i.i.d sample from the bi-variate normal ...
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2 votes
2 answers
339 views

Concavity of SVM dual formulation

These notes have derived the following dual formulation of the SVM optimisation problem using KKT conditions that I have followed It then states that the objective function is quadratic and concave (...
1 vote
1 answer
326 views

R: quadratic term in a beta regression

My hypothesis is that along a gradient of habitat structural complexity 'a', the fish diversity 'y' increases until an optimum level but decreases after that (which kinda I have noticed in the graphic ...
3 votes
1 answer
1k views

Distributions of Quadratic form of a normal random variable

I am looking for ways to prove that the moment generating function of $X'AX$ given that $X \sim N(\vec{\mu}, \vec{\Sigma})$ and $A$ is symmetric is defined as: $$M_{X'AX}(\vec{t})= \frac{1}{|I-2tA\...
0 votes
1 answer
254 views

Panel data OLS regression: plot and quadratic fitting line

I am conducting an OLS regression panel data analysis with package PLM in R. I use the following script to obtain a plot and fitting line of variables D and ...
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1 vote
2 answers
484 views

Assessing model fit of two models by computing t-test on coefficients in R

I am attempting to assess whether my explanatory variable of "startingpos" is best modelled via a quadratic regression model or a linear regression model. One way I can do this is to compute the ...
3 votes
1 answer
780 views

Fitting a quadratic regression in R

I am trying to fit a quadratic regression model in R. Here is an example of my dataframe: ...
3 votes
1 answer
258 views

Including a quadratic effect for an ordinal variable in a regression analysis

It's common for many datasets to have ordinal versions of numerical variables, such as age groups (e.g. "Under 20", "20-30", "30-40", etc.) or time groups (e.g. "Less than 15 minutes", "15-30 minutes",...
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6 votes
1 answer
187 views

Variance Ratio Formula

I've been trying to minimize/maximize the ratio of quadratic forms given by $$Q(c)=\frac{c^\top \Sigma c}{c^\top \text{diag}(\Sigma) c}$$ where $\Sigma$ denotes a covariance matrix of some $n$-...
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1 vote
0 answers
192 views

Variance of Quadratic form

From the Wikipedia In general, the variance of a quadratic form depends greatly on the distribution of ${\displaystyle \varepsilon }$ . However, if ${\displaystyle \varepsilon }$ does follow a ...
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3 votes
1 answer
284 views

Expectation of Quadratic Form with Two Random Vectors

Assume I have two independent $(N \times 1)$ random vectors, $\epsilon_{1} \sim N(0,\Sigma_1)$ and $\epsilon_{2} \sim N(0,\Sigma_2)$. We could assume $\Sigma_1=\Sigma_2$ for my purposes but a general ...
0 votes
0 answers
47 views

Self-Study: If $x \sim \mbox N_p(\mu; V)$ and A is a matrix then how to show that $E[(x-\mu)(x-\mu)'A(x-\mu) = 0$?

If we assume the random vector $x$ to be normally distributed with $N_p(\mu; V)$ then $E[(x-\mu)(x-\mu)'(x-\mu)] = 0_p$. If I am not mistaken, this can be shown using the moment generating function of ...
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3 votes
1 answer
181 views

Determine statistical difference of slopes of quadratic relationship in a Poisson regression

I'm looking for a statistical or mathematical way to test the difference between two slopes. Others have asked related questions but my problem is quite particular. I'm running a Poisson regression ...
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3 votes
2 answers
126 views

Maximization of quotient of quadratic forms in linear regression

I would like to find maximum of the following function: $$I = \max_{a\in \mathbb{R}^p} \frac{(a'\hat{\beta})^2}{S^2a'(X'X)^{-1}a},$$ where $X$ is a design matrix and of course $Y$ is normally ...
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2 votes
1 answer
73 views

How to generate data such that an equation needs to hold?

Can I create or generate $\{y_i\}_{i=1}^{4}$ data set such that this equation holds $$ \sum_{i=1}^{4}\sum_{j=1}^{4}m_{ij}y_{i}y_{j}=6 $$ where $$ m=\left[ \begin{array}{cccc} 13 & 12 & 3 &...
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1 vote
1 answer
148 views

What is the relationship between quadraric and categorical logistic regression models?

Consider two logistic regression models Y on x, one where x appears in the model as a categorical variable, and one where x appears in the predictor as both a linear term and as a quadratic term. ...
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1 vote
1 answer
72 views

What is the relationship between a quadratic model and categorical model?

Using logistic explore the association between lung reactivity and risk of chronic respiratory disease. The dataset contains information on a combined measure of lung function exposure respcat ...
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0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Proof of distribution of $Y^{T}AY$

I am reading a proof that given $Y \sim N(\mu, \Sigma)$, where $\Sigma$ is positive definite, $Y^{T}AY \sim \chi^{2}_{p}(\mu^{T}A\mu)$ iff $A \Sigma A =A$ and $A$ has rank $p$. One of the steps in ...
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2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Variance of quadratic form for multivariate normal distribution

This is a homework problem I’m trying to solve but I can’t seem to solve Q1b without using the theorem. I am also given the fact that $$E(y’Ay)=tr(A\Sigma)+\mu’A\mu$$ I’ve tried using the trace-...
0 votes
1 answer
70 views

Regression: Why does using quadratic expressions work with linear estimators? [duplicate]

My questions is, that I see people using R´s lm() (linear regression model) with Y ~ X^2 e.g. here: Simple non-linear regression problem But I dont see how and ...
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