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Questions tagged [relative-risk]

The relative risk (also called 'risk ratio') is the quotient of the probabilities of an event under two conditions (ie, p1/p2). The RR has a possible range of [0, +infinity). It is a common measure of effect size in biomedical research.

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Vertical translation of independent variable vs OR and independent variable vs RR curve

i have been trying to predict risk of developing a cancer from genetic data. At the end I plotted a curve, that shows odds ratio (OR) and relative risk (RR) as a function of polygenic risk score (PRS) ...
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What is the relationship between risk ratio and weight of evidence?

I've been reading about risk ratios as typical measures in clinical settings. In finance and credit literature, there is the weight of evidence measure to encode and study variables. Is there a ...
24 views

How to calculate risk ratio for chemical substances

Simple example: Three different chemical substances are given to patients (each to 5 patients). Some patients die, some not. Samples (number of patients) are not equal. How to calculate the rate of ...
19 views

risk-ratio confidence-interval - but weighted?

I have survey data, with weights that adjust the sample to be nationally representative, from two time points. There is a binary presence/absence variable. Presence increases from time 1 to time 2. I ...
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Relative Risk Constraint?

I am starting to dig into some epidemiology and am just starting to get into the nuances of relative risk (RR) vs. the odds ratio (OR). In the Fundamentals of Biostatistics, I read: "Although ...
28 views

Interpreting the magnitude of the relative risk

I am used to interpreting Cohen's d in terms of small/medium/large effect sizes (cf. Cohen 1988 or Sawilowsky 2009) where, for example, a a Cohen's d of 0.2 corresponds to a small effect size. I am ...
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Multiple risk ratio analysis or single multiple logistic regression for survey

I was asked by a doctoral student to analyze the answers to an old questionnaire her lab has and would like to publish the results of. There are a few questions with regards to animal care and disease ...
46 views

Assess temporary effect of treatment

Imagine that I have a treatment that reduces the likelihood of response to a stimulus. This could be anything you like, but the simplest example is of a treatment (e.g., hand washing, mask wearing, ...
28 views

Probability of association in logistic regression models

I’m using a logit model to evaluate the association of a set of habitats (H) to a particular land cover. Both land cover and H are binary variables. ...
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What does the decomposition of a relative risk look like?

Say I have a relative risk of smokers that smoked 1-20 cigarettes per day. What is the mathematical identity between that RR, the RR of those that smoked 1-10 cig/day, and RR of those that smoked 11-...
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Why is information gain rarely used as a reported effect size?

Commonly, in reporting effect sizes in medical articles, papers typically report: risk difference (RD), relative risk (RR) and odds ratio (OR) (and for variable timescale cases and other situations, ...
55 views

Odds Ratio Vs. Risk Ratio

Relative risk, odds ratio, risk ratio, risk difference - these are all measures of the direction and the strength of the association between two categorical variables. Can I use any of these four ...
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Retrospective risk factor analysis in small samples

I am looking for risk factors for an specific outcome (death at a certain time) in a retrospective cohort of a disease. I have 40 observations and lots of variables (30+), mostly cathegorical. Have ...
95 views

Define statistical potential energy [closed]

I am looking for a statistical method that closely relates to the idea of potential energy. Here is a quick google definition for potential energy "...the energy possessed by a body by virtue of ...
287 views

how to map an estimated risk ratio of 0.76 to increased life expectancy

Andrew Gelman's blog contains the following question: John Ioannidis writes: Assuming the meta-analyzed evidence from cohort studies represents life span–long causal associations, for a baseline ...
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Get relative risk ratio and confidence interval from logistic regression [duplicate]

There are many examples on these forums of people calculating risk ratios from logistic regressions, but none of them seem to match my situation. I have two predictor variables - one continuous and ...
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Likelihood-Based Confidence Intervals for ratio of risk ratios

Ratio of Risk Ratio (RRR), along with Relative Excess Risk Due to Interaction (RERI), has been used to quantify the joint effects of 2 exposures in epidemiology. Quoting Joshua N. Pritikin CIs ...
18 views

Relative risk per increment

I have a study that reports summary RR and RR using an increment (e.g., 100 grams per day). In layman's terms, what does the RR using an increment mean? For example, eating chocolate overall has a RR ...
33 views

Odds ratio and Risk ratio disagree?

Is it possible for the odds ratio and the risk ratio for a variable to disagree? For example - an odds ratio >1 and risk ratio <1?
81 views

Math formula to reproduce a plot comparing Relative Risk to Odds Ratios

I'm trying to reproduce Figures 1, 2 and 3 in this paper (notice that clicking on the FIGURES/TABLES tab is enough to see the plots - no need to sign up or create an account), simply to understand how ...
1k views

Why is odds ratio an estimate of relative risk?

This link says In epidemiological terms, the odds ratio is used as a point estimate of the relative risk in retrospective studies. I understand that odds ratio is calculated in case control ...
110 views

Converting Cohen's d to a Relative Risk for a model-based economic evaluation

Hello researchers: my question is about the use of forest plot results for an economic model. In a forest plot you could have the following results: 0.34 [0.22, 0.45], which would be the pooled ...
54 views

Summary RR to % risk increase?

In a comprehensive meta-analysis the 'summary RR per 120 g/day increase in red meat intake was 1.20 (95% CI 1.04–1.38)' In a review citing this information, they have written rather 'a 20% increase in ...
289 views

What does a large Relative Risk Ratio mean?

I run a multinomial logistic regression model on a dependent variable Y with five levels (with one of them set as a reference). Though the outputs of the model were in line with my expectations, I ...
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Is there a two-by-two contingency table dataset where an Odds Ratio estimate would work and a Risk Ratio would fail?

I am wondering if there is an example of a two-by-two contingency table dataset where an Odds Ratio estimate would work and a Risk Ratio would fail, or vice versa? In additional are there cases where ...
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How would I conduct a relative risk meta-analysis, when the exposure levels in the data are presented in overlapping ranges?

For example, if I have studies observing the dose-response relationship between alcohol (g/day) and breast cancer, and the exposures are reported as heterogeneous and overlapping ranges (10-20g, 15-...
745 views

Odds ratios are inappropriate for a cross-sectional or cohort study

I'm aware of the issues regarding the use of relative risk in a case control study. But a colleague recently told me that odds ratios are inappropriate for cross-sectional and cohort studies but can't ...
197 views

Odds ratio and relative risk

I'm trying to understand how the odds ratio can approximate the relative risk under the rare disease assumption. I'm given the relative risk for disease $B$ and risk factor $A$ is 2 and that 20% of ...
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How to calculate relative risk if the reference group has an incidence of 0?

this appears to be a quite difficult question. As we know, if 20% of the smokers developed lung cancer and 10% of the non-smokers developed lung cancer, then we say that cigarette smoking is ...
157 views

Interpreting 95% confidence intervals for relative risk (known true RR, 100 samples)

Let's assume that we are investigating how tobacco smoking is associated with incident lung cancer in a population. In the full population, the true relative risk of lung cancer associated with ...
336 views

Relative Risk using Smoothing Splines In MCGV GAM

I am attempting to run a relative risk model using the MCGV package in R with multiple predictors. The syntax for my model in R is the following: ...
103 views

Confidence interval on binomial effect size

Suppose I have a binomial test, with 9 successes in 12 trials, expected p=1/3. In other words, in R you might do: binom.test(9,12,p=1/3) Now, I'm under the ...
1k views

Fisher's Exact Test, Relative Risk or Odds Ratio?

A clinical trial is being planned, in which the primary outcome is binary (success/failure). There are two treatment groups (treatment/control). The aim of the trial is to show that the treatment is ...
562 views

Relative Risk and Confidence Interval from GLM

We're trying to replicate a study by MacInnis et al. (2016) using R. The goal is to derive relative risks (RR) and confidence intervals (CI) from a GLM with a binary outcome and several categorical ...
3k views

Why is relative risk not valid in case control studies?

I'm getting my information from: http://sphweb.bumc.bu.edu/otlt/mph-modules/ep/ep713_analyticoverview/EP713_AnalyticOverview5.html It says that in a case-control study, you can not compute the ...
672 views

What is an appropriate hypothesis test for relative risk in paired data?

What is an appropriate test of $\mathbf{H_{0}:RR = 1; H_{A}: RR \ne 1}$? Assume that the data are paired (e.g., from a crossover trial with two treatments, and a dichotomous response), so that: <...
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Correct model for comparing frequencies of comorbidities, large numbers

Here is what my group wants to do: Query a database for cases of several disorders, including Disorder A and Disorder B. Of those cases, specifically query for cases of Disorder A comorbid with each ...
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Is it meaningful to combine relative risks and hazard ratio data in meta-analysis? [duplicate]

Is it meaningful to combine relative risks and hazard ratio data in meta-analysis? Trial data I have extracted takes the form of either 2x2 data (from which the RR is easily calculated) or HR with ...
292 views

How did researchers calculate the Hazard ratio?

I'm looking at a pdf document and can get the result of the HR. It is actually similiar to calculating the relative risk if I'm right. How do I get the 1.45 HR or 1.20 HR values based on the 3 rows ...
40 views

Absolute Risk more than 100%

Is it possible for the absolute risk to be more than 100%? I read the definition of absolute risk is the number of events (good or bad) in treated or control groups, divided by the number of people ...
229 views

Calculating and comparing lifetime risk

Is the following calculation/approximation appropriate when calculating lifetime risk (?): The lifetime risk of developing a disease or adverse event secondarily to a therapy or intervention was ...
104 views

Examples of meta-analyses where individual associatons are reported as odds ratios, risk ratios, or hazard ratios [duplicate]

I am analyzing data from 17 studies (25 data points) with mixed measures of association (OR, RR, HR). Most associations are less than 2.0, with four from 2.0 to 3.1. Only one is less than 1.0 (not ...
124 views

Marginal standardization with robust error estimation for estimation of risk ratios

I've been using software to calculate multivariate risk ratios from logistic regression models. The basic premise is to predict the risk in everybody with some exposure and then again with the ...
64 views

Guidelines to choose between relative risk and absolute risk

I have a regular case-control study where I can calculate the proportion of patients infected when exposed to say, UV vs regular light. For hypothesis testing, how do I decide which is a better ...
45 views

General Linear Mixed Models

I'm trying to model excess mortality of cancer patients, and am currently using a general linear model following a poisson distribution. However, I haven't allowed for the possibility that people ...
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how to convert relative risk per category to relative risk per unit?

if we have this table, how we can estimate RR for one unit increment in BMI ? both for cohort and case-control studies.
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How to rescale relative risk

To examine the association between an exposure and outcome, for example body mass index as exposure and all-cause mortality as outcome, some of studies reported relative risk as a continuous form. ...
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Can Relative Risk mislead us when choosing predictors for a logistic model?

My friend taught me to use Relative Risk as a guide to check if my coefficients make sense. For example, I have a propensity to default model, where the variable fl_default is equal to 1 if the ...