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1answer
24 views

Determining suitable seed number in R to randomly split data into training and test sets

Good day. I have sample size of 160 and I am randomly splitting them into 70% train and 30% test data sets. My question is about the set.seed() value which returns different random samples in each ...
0
votes
0answers
20 views

Does heteroskedasticity matter when estimating a regression using the entire population?

The F-statistic, t-statistics, p-values and standard errors of the estimated coefficients will all be incorrect in the presence of heteroskedasticity. However, does this even matter if I am working ...
1
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1answer
40 views

AB testing and hypothesis testing

I have an entire market for which I plan to run two offers. I randomly split the market 50/50. All of Group A receives offer 1 and all of group B receives offer 2. I want to compare proportions of ...
0
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0answers
26 views

Conclusion for not rejecting a null hypothesis

I'm actually quite confused what is the outcome we could deduce here for the other exercise types listed in the diagram. From my interpretation, the null-hypothesis is: There is no association ...
1
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1answer
32 views

compute sample probabilities given a poisson distribution

I have read through a large number of stack posts about hypothesis testing on Poisson distributions. Some examples: Calculating test statistic of a poisson distribution Hypothesis testing with ...
1
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1answer
34 views

Significance Test with dichotomous variable

I have a set of data. The data contains 30.000 observations of a set of several variables. One of those variables indicates a nominal segment classification. In total there are six different segments. ...
0
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0answers
10 views

Location level a/b testing sample size

We are setting up experiments to measure impact on the city level. Customer in certain cities are treated and we have list of holdout cities with similar behavior. Measurement of lift of the ...
0
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0answers
19 views

Calculating probability of voting results from small sample aize

2 million people voted in a poll for their favourite song. 35,000 votes have been counted so far, of which: 575 votes are for Song A 466 votes are for Song B 393 votes are for Song C (And the ...
0
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0answers
14 views

How tailed area decided for hypothesis testing?

I have a doubt in basic hypothesis testing. Suppose I have a testing setup as below. I have assumed null hypothesis that my sampling distribution has $\mu = 60$, and I get a sample set with sample ...
0
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1answer
49 views

Hypothesis testing on subsamples and cross validation

When working on very large datasets, identifying effects rests more on quantification than significance and many questions/answers give insight on what to do regarding large samples like this (very ...
12
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3answers
815 views

Why do several (if not all) parametric hypothesis tests assume random sampling?

Tests like Z, t, and several others assume that the data is based on a random sampling. Why? Suppose that I'm doing experimental research, where I care much more for the internal validity than the ...
6
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3answers
497 views

Significance of relationship between sex and bachelor's degree or higher (2017 U.S. labor force, ages 25 and up) (disparity, difference)

Reports and webpages like the following prompted this question: "Women Now at the Head of the Class, Lead Men in College Attainment" by Kurt Bauman and Camille Ryan, October 7, 2015, United States ...
0
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1answer
57 views

mean of sample vs the sample mean

Say I have a sample population A it has mean $\mu_A$. I sample A and obtain another sample population $\hat A$, it has a mean of $\mu_\hat A$. If a hypothesis test indicates that I should be 95% ...
0
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1answer
11 views

Is it Acceptable to Sum Multiple Observations for Proportion in Inferential Statistics and Hypothesis Testing?

Suppose I'm sampling two groups for an experimental research where I'm measuring how people respond to a certain type of question under the interference of certain factors in one of the groups, and ...
1
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1answer
49 views

An Elementary Question on Sampling

(Apologies if the question is too basic or vague. I have taken only one course in the subject long ago. This question stems from a silly argument I was having with a friend) Two friends want to find ...
0
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1answer
122 views

A/B test and SRS

I was reading about Simple Random Sampling (SRS) from this lecture notes. It says that SRS, which actually is a sampling without replacement makes $x_i$ not independent. Then I thought about A/B ...
1
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1answer
293 views

Using binomial vs central limit theorem in hypothesis testing

This is the question that I was working on: "An airline claims that the proportion of luggage that is lost is less than or equal to 0.06. A random sample of size 200 is taken. Out of the 200 ...
0
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0answers
39 views

Long-run behavior of p-values? (simulation) [duplicate]

I was wondering why the expected value (i.e., long-run average) of the p-values from a simulation of a binomial experiment in the below experiment becomes roughly about $.61$, regardless of $p$; the ...
1
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2answers
63 views

Testing count post sampling

Some automated sampling is done (by a computer) on a collection of $N$ identical items. The sampling process consists in keeping each item with a constant probability $\alpha$ and discarding it with a ...
1
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0answers
20 views

Determining Regions of Rejection: Why does optional stopping affect null hypothesis testing?

I'm having great difficulty understanding how selecting a stopping point alters the sampling space in the example below. Specifically, why is the probability of 5 successes and one failure different (...
0
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2answers
7k views

Sample Size proportion per control vs. experiment group

I am taking an online statistics course and I understand how to calculate the necessary sample size for a hypothesis test. I am using an online calculator like http://www.evanmiller.org/ab-testing/...
0
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1answer
44 views

Replication of a normally distributed variable

Suppose we know there is a True Effect size = + 0.2 for an experiment. Now, suppose that I want to find out what happens if I repeat the exact same experiment 10,000 times. If I believe such ...
1
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1answer
472 views

Difference in proportions with finite population

I'm looking for a suitable test for the difference in two proportions when dealing with finite populations. The standard z-test seems to only apply to infinite populations, so you lose some power. It ...
0
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0answers
282 views

How are the null distributions created for hypothesis testing?

I'm struggling to connect the idea of a sampling distribution of a test statistic to the null distribution. If I run many simple linear regressions on samples extracted from a population of data I ...
1
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1answer
61 views

Is it possible to formulate a null hypothesis for this single-sample case?

I have the percentage of completed activities of a set of users that have used a concrete application. I have the number for each of them, for instance: Participant #1 --> 0.85 Participant #2 --> 0....
4
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2answers
297 views

Unknown process outputs binary results, how to prove that this process is (or not) a Bernoulli trial

I have an unknown process that produces binary results. I am trying to determine if this process is a Bernoulli trial. From wikipedia: In the theory of probability and statistics, a Bernoulli ...
0
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2answers
57 views

Testing a hypothesis about the size of coefficients in a linear relationship

In the project, I was asked to determine whether $0.5(\text{Father's Height} + \text{Mother's Height}) +6.5$ correctly predicts the height for boys. To do this, I've collected 50 male students' ...
1
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0answers
69 views

Is controlling for cluster good enough in an analysis with a clustered sample?

I'm trying to understand how sampling design affects analyses and I'm a little confused about how to adjust for clustering. From what I've read, when you have a clustered sample you are supposed to ...
2
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0answers
44 views

Determine significance of an observed continuous distribution given many randomly generated continuous distributions

Suppose there is a vector, v, that contains the body height of every person over 30 years old on earth. It looks something like this: ...
1
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1answer
70 views

Test fitness proportionate selection algorithm implementation

I implemented a couple of algorithms for fitness proportionate selection (roulette-wheel, alias method and roulette-wheel via stochastic acceptance) and now I want to write a test to ensure that ...
1
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0answers
45 views

Distinguishing two Bernoulli random sources

I have a source of independent Bernoulli random variables, which is either $(X_i)$ or $(Y_i)$ where $\Pr[X_i=1]=p$ and $\Pr[Y_i=1]=q$. I can sample as many values as I'd like, and would like to figure ...
1
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1answer
614 views

Joint inclusion probability for Horvitz–Thompson estimator

There is a Wikipedia page for the Horvitz–Thompson estimator. It is an estimator for the population total. Unfortunately the page has failed to state the standard error. From here, the standard ...
1
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0answers
46 views

How to call extreme samples in a Monte Carlo simulation for hypothesis testing?

For many hypothesis tests, Monte Carlo methods are used to estimate the empirical $p$-value which is defined as $$p=\#{(T_{sample} > T_{observed})}/N.$$ Is there a name for the samples with $T_{...
1
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1answer
40 views

Binary variance? Comparing two sacks of uneven coins or two heterogenous groups of people

I have two sacks of coins. In one sack, the coins are all uniform, each giving a fairly constant 0.5 chance of heads (based on tossing a few of them and also visual inspection). I then estimate the ...
2
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1answer
73 views

Searching for signal in a somewhat noisy landscape

I'm trying to implement a system to identify regions of high signal content in the presence of a noisy landscape. By high signal content, I simply mean intensity values significantly above background ...
0
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0answers
940 views

Calculate at .05 level of significance

A research organization claims that the monthly wages of industrial workers in district X exceed those in district Y by more than Rs 150. Two different samples drawn independently from the two ...
3
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4answers
1k views

How exactly does null hypothesis testing work

I'm trying to gain a better understanding of how null hypothesis testing works. I have 3 questions related to the code below: Am I right in saying the probability of each t value in ...
7
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2answers
424 views

Birthday “Paradox” — with a different perspective

Background: Many people are familiar with the so-called Birthday "Paradox" that, in a room of 23 people, there is a better than 50/50 chance that two of them will share the same birthday. In its more ...
1
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1answer
171 views

What are the null and alternate hypotheses? Will you use a left, right, or two-tailed test?

Ben has a coin which he claims is weighted in a way so that when he flips it, heads appears more often than 50% of the time. He tries to prove it to you by flipping the coin 100 times, which results ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Probability of Two Samples Containing Overlapping Data

Quick question about sampling a data population that contains non-overlapping data: if I take two samples of 50 from a population of 100,000 unique data points, how would I calculate the probability ...
2
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1answer
79 views

Validating a Data Set.. Which Test should I use

I have a data set(size around 1000) which was collected by a third party. I want to verify the correctness of this survey data using random sampling (by telephoning). Is this a correct approach to the ...
2
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1answer
965 views

Performance testing: detecting changes in distributions over time

I have an interesting application I’d like some advice on. A common task when working with stochastic systems in an engineering context is testing for regressions and improvements in performance. ...
1
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1answer
109 views

Question about the logic of hypothesis testing

Let us say that we have this following problem: "A government agency claims that more than 50% of US tax returns were filed electronically last year. A random sample of 150 tax returns for last year ...
3
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2answers
1k views

Adjusting any power analysis with FPC?

Is it correct (perhaps at least as a good approximation) to determine sample size via a power analysis that assumes an infinite population and then to adjust the required sample size by a finite ...
5
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1answer
1k views

What is the sampling distribution of a sum of scores?

Can you help me understand, or refer me to a source about, what is the sampling distribution of the sum of scores? I know how to get the sampling distribution of the mean to construct a t-test, etc. ...
8
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2answers
16k views

Difference between null distribution and sampling distribution

I am asking this questions for clarifications on the terms between "null distribution" and "sampling distribution". I find that when some one says null distribution, actually they mean the same thing ...
5
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2answers
4k views

Are sample statistics relevant when comparing census data across time periods?

I've had people tell me on numerous occasions that you can / should do tests normally reserved for sample statistics (e.g., difference of means etc.) on census data when you are comparing figures over ...
15
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1answer
10k views

Difference between Randomization test and Permutation test

In the literature the terms Randomization and Permutation are used interchangeably. With many authors stating "Permutation (aka randomization) tests", or vice versa. At best I believe the difference ...
0
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1answer
67 views

How can you find the probability that an element is part of a sampled set?

Let's say I have a set of scalar values $V$ that I sampled from a set $S$. I want to test whether a given value $X$ could be a member of $S$ or not. I understand that if the values in $V$ are ...
1
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0answers
190 views

Inference on original population based on sample - estimating sampling probability

In my research I am working on some data (let’s call it sales data), however we almost have no information on the original sample. My goal is to come up with possible explanations on how it could be ...