Questions tagged [scale-construction]

Construction of a measuring scale for a "trait" as a sum (or other function) of individual variables ("items"). Various methods to validate the construction exist (including factor analysis, external criterion, experts opinion etc.).

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Inter-Rater Reliability for Relative Strength of a Measure

Let's start with a classic: You're trying to get 3 judges to measure the creativity of different art projects, from 1-10, with 1 being 'Uninspired' and 10 being 'Incredibly Creative'. You want to ...
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41 views

Should subscales be analyzed separately under the IRT Graded Response model?

Suppose I have a Likert scale type questionnaire that assesses the amount of social support a patient receives. The questionnaire is divided into four subscales that measure: Emotional support ...
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Statistical test for three independent variables and one dependent variable

I use SPSS for my data analysis and cannot seem to think of a proper test to test my hypothesis. I have three independent variables (1. direct emotion expression, 2. indirect emotion expression and 3. ...
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How to decide if a rotation is necessary in a factor anaysis?

I have a (self-report) scale with 18 items. The scale as a whole is very reliable ($\alpha = .92$); however, the original authors report two sub-scales. Here is the interesting thing that I don't ...
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Interesting and unusual dependent variable--how do you think it should be handled?

We have 2 dependent measures, which are both distributed from -4 to +4 in discrete steps. This is because the values are based on people's responses to four questions about whether they spend more ...
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34 views

Is there a point to using EFA for scale validation when you can always fit a second-order CFA?

I have been trying to understand the use of Exploratory Factor Analysis for the purpose of scale validation. Say you have developed a scale to measure construct X, which is supposed to be one unified ...
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How to create a scale combining normalized percentile scores to get an overall result

I am trying to work out a scale for assessing a person’s risk for a particular behavior (like rob a bank). The likelihood of this behavior occurring or not occurring will be based on scores for a ...
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Multiple dimension scale development - validation using SEM

I'm developing a scale for measuring customer experience. Based on the principal component analysis I established that it has three components (11 items). Now I need to validate it by relating it to ...
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What does scale exactly mean?

I am not so familiar with statistical concepts. I am preparing a questionnaire to measure underlying constructs that affect pedestrian's road crossing behavior. However, I came across this term called ...
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37 views

How to Interpret Reflective Measurement Model?

Given $F$ is a latent construct (cause), and $Y_1$, $Y_2$, and $Y_3$ are the manifest (indicator) variables (effects) which are measured. Then, there are two groups of people (A and B). According to ...
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Scales correlate negatively, but average correlates positively!

I have a total relationship quality variable constructed as the mean of three other scales. Each of these three (family, friend, and spouse) scales is significantly negatively associated with an ...
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Are average online ratings of products (say out of 5) assumed to be on a linear scale as understood by the user?

Suppose 2 washing machines A & B are rated as 3.5 and 4.0 (out of 5) respectively, vs another 2, C & D, that are rated as 4.2 and 4.7 respectively. Can I make some useful inference based on ...
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Using a constructed scale and an individual component of that scale in a statistical model

I am working with a colleague who wants to include a term in our linear mixed effect model that is also an individual component of a scale that we constructed and have in our model (both as predictors)...
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131 views

Interpretation of factor loadings/eigenvalues

I have conducted an exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring, with direct oblimin rotation. The results indicate two factors, in that there are two factors with eigenvalues above 1, ...
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Combining items with low correlation and low internal validity using combinatory logic

So I want to combine four items into an index on strong theoretical grounds (scroll all the way down in case you are interested in what those grounds are) but looking at the statistics, I get abysmal ...
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571 views

How to calculate alpha reliability of a scale (factor) when it is expressed in factor scores?

I am doing a Principal Axis Factor Analysis, I found two factors and saved the factor scores for each, using the regression approach (as in the SPSS option by default). My question is, how do I ...
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Convergent Validity with Multiple New Scales

I am interested in creating a new scale in a field that is overwhelmingly understudied in the research literature. I would like to test the convergent validity by modifying another survey instrument ...
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What is the difference between formative and reflective measurement models?

Can anyone provide examples as to why choose one over the other? Are they calculated diferently?
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“Two stage” factor Analysis: factoring saved factor scores

I have a model which consists of 19 questions, which are divided in three factors (factor 1 - nine questions, factor 2 - six questions, factor 3 - four questions). For this I did a factor analysis and ...
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Creating a single index from several principal components or factors retained from PCA/FA

I am using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to create an index required for my research. My question is how I should create a single index by using the retained principal components calculated ...
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5k views

What is the relationship between scale reliability measures (Cronbach's alpha etc.) and component/factor loadings?

Let's say I have a dataset with scores on a bunch of questionnaire items, which are theoretically comprised of a smaller number of scales, like in psychology research. I know a common approach here ...
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583 views

Validation of a questionnaire in a new population

I have 400 responses to a 20 item questionnaire which purports to measure an attitudinal constuct in medical students. The instrument was validated in the US for a single year of medical students and ...
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709 views

Item response theory vs. summative Likert scale

If the items to be "summed" or combined to create an overall index are collectively the underlying construct (i.e. I am trying to measure compliance to an intervention which has different components), ...
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When is appropriate to run a factor analysis at items level vs. scale level in a questionnaire?

I am doing a research validating a new questionnaire, which has 156 items divided up in 12 scales. I have run a factor analysis at scale level, which gives me two nice constructs (consistent with ...
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Item analysis for a likert-type questionnaire - item discrimination, point-biserial, factor analysis, cronbach's alpha, other diagnostics?

I'm working on a questionnaire that is intended to measure two constructs. There are presently 26 items in the questionnaire -- eleven for construct 1 and 15 for construct 2 -- and each item has five ...
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Validating questionnaires

I am designing a questionnaire for my dissertation. I am in the process of validating the questionnaire I have applied a Cronbach's alpha test to the initial sample group. The responses to the ...