Questions tagged [scales]

Scales used to express measurements. Usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal types of scales are recognized. Dichotomous and count types are sometimes seen as their own. Other classifications exist. [For "scale" as a sum of individual items in psychometry - see also tag 'psychometrics'.]

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Violation of application requierements / assumptions

As far as I know all methods / models making assumptions about data distribution, data scale, etc. but whenever I read a paper (political sciences) the researcher(s) are violating them (some). E.g. ...
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How to convert percentage values from 7 point scale to 5 point scale?

Suppose in one year I had a survey with 7-point scale and the values are like ...
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What scale of measurement is percentage?

Is the percentage of marks scored by someone or something like the population growth ratio scale of interval? Like both have an absolute zero so it makes sense for them to be ratio and not interval?
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What is the advantage of a scoring scale with many levels?

In my research I have different ordinal variables with 3 levels of scores. Each score represents the severity of a condition. In other studies I see that the same variables are scored on a scale with ...
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Why is it called a ratio scale?

Can you provide a simple example that clearly explains- why ratio scale is called ratio scale?
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Do you need validators for a demographic profile questionnaire?

I am conducting a thesis and I created a survey questionnaire that would help to answer the questions in my statement of the problem. Now, I am wondering if the questionnaire I created is already good ...
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Variable scales in latent class or profile analysis

Do popular implementations of latent class or profile analyses automatically handle indicator variables of different scales? For example, if variables with similar distributions range 0-1, 0-1000, 0-...
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Why standardized factor loading > 1 ? (CFA in lavaan)

I am runing CFA in R with the lavaan package. My model is one factor with 5 variales. I set std.lv = TRUE, but the estimated factor loading is still > 1. Can I report the std.all column as my ...
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Understanding Scales of Measurement

Looking through the various Stack Exchange groups, I think this may be the appropriate group. Apologies if I should have posted this elsewhere. I have been reading about Scales of Measurement (Nominal,...
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Calculating Cronbach's Alpha for New Study Sample

I have been asked to calculate Cronbach's alpha for the instruments used in a completed study which utilized multiple questionnaires composed of Likert-type questions. These questionnaires are already ...
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When do we REALLY need to distinguish interval from ratio measurement levels?

This question is specifically aimed toward the practice of statistics and data science and toward statistics educators (particularly introductory level statistics). In brief, ¿when do we really need ...
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random sampling with replacement of variables, not just cases [closed]

I have k = 24 indicators for a latent construct. In fact, these indicators are interchangeable. To reduce the number of indicators for a scale measuring the latent construct I would like to randomly ...
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Likert Scales and summed scores

I cannot seem to find consensus on the following so hopefully someone can shed some light on it. I have 5-point Likert scale Strongly Agree, Agree, Neither Agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly ...
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Summary score of two uncorrelated factors

I have six items that are well supported in EFA as two factors of three items each, but the two factors, when made into sub-indices, are not correlated with each other =.10. I wonder whether this ...
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Clustering and data scaling

I have a dataset with 5 questions, which are scaled 1-10 and income variable, which is nominal. Should I standardise all variables with min/max scaler, or convert income to 1-10 scale? What is the ...
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Visual Analogue Scale, which is not analogue

For my thesis, I have to analyze data that resembles a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Although at first glance it was a VAS, the scale was not analog. The test subjects could only choose between 11 ...
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Determining the order in which to impute variables (multiple imputation by FCS)

I am working with SPSS and am using multiple imputation to handle missings on 11 variables of interest. I intend to conduct multiple linear regressions on these variables after I impute them; 7 of ...
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Dimensionality Reduction Techniques Ordinal Variables on different scales

I have a data set that is a mix between Ordinal variables and numerical variables. The problem is that the ordinal variables are on different scales, such as 0-2, 1-4. The data set has 35 variables. I ...
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Is it legitimate to combine two scales of interest on different topics to one based on the intervention condition?

I am doing research where we study students' motivation when working on physics learning tasks. In doing so, we give students learning tasks that are motivated by different contexts, so that they ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Using OLS over Logit regression

I was hoping someone could clarify this for me. I have used OLS regressions using the PISA dataset where most of my outcome variables are categorical in nature and measured on 4 point Likert scales, ...
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"standardize = " option in glmnet package

I have one question regarding the standardize option in a glmnet package. I understand that scaling or standardizing dataset is necessary for the regression analysis in order to make the coefficients ...
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Example of a measurement variable that can be multiplied but not added

In Stevens' levels of measurement there are nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scale variables that allow for different mathematical operations. While these levels have been presented to me in such ...
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Transformation With Mean, Min and Max (but without stddev)

while checking some programm code used for scores in an online test I have seen the following scale transformation. It depends on a mean, a minimum and a maximum value (but not on standard deviation ...
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Using standardized values (z-score) for MAE (Mean absolute error)

I have two models/indices that try to predict observed values. I've compared them using correlation and regression, but I'd like to use MAE (Mean absolute error) to asses which of them is more closer ...
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What is the difference between the Scale of Interest & Scale of Estimation

As an example of the distinction I have yet to fully parse, consider this (I am not interested in the specific content, it just happens to be a common hit when searching for "scale of interest&...
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Gwet's AC for single items and summated scale scores: nominal, ordinal or continuous data?

I really hope someone can help me. I am measuring the test-retest reliability of a scale and I am unclear of what kind of variables I am dealing with. I have looked at the following threads: What is ...
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Scaled test data value range is much different than the scaled train data

I am trying to create an LSTM model for time series prediction. I am using MinMaxScaler (from the library sklearn for python) for scaling the data. At first, I didn't know that you shouldn't fit the ...
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Re-scaling variable - Mean equal to 100

I've created a composite indicator which is now in a normalized form. I want to rescale this variable so that the mean in the baseline year is equal to 100. In this way, all observations above 100 ...
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How to correctly transform a log-log graph into untransformed exponential graph?

I plotted my data on a natural log-log scale and I seem to get a okay fit to the data with y=1.19 - 0.116x with Rsq = 0.29 I want to use the parameters but plot the row data with an exponential curve....
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Calculating correlation among different scales [duplicate]

I have conducted a small scale study investigating teachers mental health, covid-19 anxiety, work engagement and burn out levels. Now I would like to measure the relationships between the ...
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2 votes
1 answer
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Can ratio data have negative values?

I get the concept of a "true zero" value, but I'm not sure why this implies that there cannot be any negative values—at least that's what most sources say that I found only, with only few ...
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How to combine both correction for restriction of range and attenuation?

I have two measurements obtained by two different scales that I want to correlate. Because of the nature of the sample I should use both a correction for attenuation and a correction of restriction of ...
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1 answer
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Should I take a mean of answers given by an individual on a Likert-Style Scale?

I want to use three established scales which have a Likert Scale as a response - for instance the 10-item Need for Belonging scale (Leary et al., 2013). This scale is a 1-5 response alongside another ...
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Correlation between subscales

I have used a scale, which includes 3 subscales. Given that the 3 subscales make part of the same,validated instrument, what conclusions can be drawn from the fact that a pair of subscales ...
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Comparing Dissimilar Survey Questions

I am hoping to gain some insight on the most responsible way to fulfill a request at my place of work. I have been asked to show a quantifiable improvement year-over-year, by comparing apples and ...
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How to scale one dataset in relation to another?

I have two sets of numbers, that represent grades from two different groups of students, A and B, these grades go from 0 up to 1000. These sets have very different distributions, while set A has a lot ...
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1 answer
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Matrix row - PCA

I know that before doing PCA we need to normalize and scale the data by feature. I am wondering what it will be happened if the normalization and the scaling operations would be calculated for each ...
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2 votes
1 answer
157 views

Inclusion of a NA category in inter-rater agreement calculation

I have a dataset in which the behaviour of $n = 6$ subjects have been rated by $k = 84$ raters on an ordinal scale with 5 ordinal categories. The distances between the ordinal categories are not ...
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best way to combine/analyze multiple datasets that assessed a construct using different scales?

one dataset has a construct X measured with a scale that has 11 items (all rated on a 7-point scale), another one has it measured using a different 5-item scale (rated on a 5-point scale). (and there'...
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Constant-information scale transformation

I was recently introduced to the concept of constant information scale transformations in the book Generalized Linear Model with Examples in R, by Dunn and Smyth. With that, they mention in the book ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Normalize across groups, individuals or population?

I would like to compare sensors of a manufacturer A with those of a manufacturer B. As they provide different measurement magnitudes, I want to scale the variables such that it makes more sense to ...
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Transforming data on a per-instance basis

I am currently facing the following situation (in my feature engineering process): I am inspecting a step function for a set of instances (step function per instance), i.e., in each iteration "i&...
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2 votes
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Equation for weighted average with normalization(?)

I am trying to understand how I should denote the equation for rescaling the following 7 categories into one value. The final weighted average is 0.57, which is possible by subtracting one and ...
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Understanding the difference between standardization and normalizing for hierarchical clustering

I am trying to understand the difference between normalization and standardization for the hierarchical clustering. I read the documentation and some posts like this and this as well as several SO ...
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3 votes
1 answer
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Likert scale 0-4 or 1-5

I am conducting a study with Likert scale questions and my thesis advisor advised me to rescale the answers from 1-5 (strongly agree-strongly disagree) to 0-4. She says this will help in the ...
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Does rounding violate the restrictions of an interval scale?

I'm currently working with questionnaire data from the NASA TLX. It uses a graphical rating scale with 100 equally spaced data points, broken up by 21 ticks, leaving intervals of 5. Its manual (p. 4) ...
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1 answer
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t-Test for dependent samples for z-standardized values?

I've got children's questionnaire scores (mean of 6 items) regarding a particular variable (here: how well the child likes to interact with technology), and a score of the same child by a parent (they ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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comparing the performance of a score across different populations2

A very well validated score exists. This score predicts mortality after disease A when patients present from country W . The score is a 4 point score. If a subject presents from the community with ...
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1 vote
1 answer
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comparing the performance of a score across different populations

A very well validated score exists. This score predicts mortality after disease A when patients present from country W . The score is a 4 point score. If a subject presents from the community with ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
43 views

Can z-score transformation ever be undesirable? [duplicate]

I am new to the field and learned about scaling (by z score transformation) of data. While it seems a super useful and universal technique, I have learned that no technique is applicable to each and ...
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