# Questions tagged [scales]

Scales used to express measurements. Usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal types of scales are recognized. Dichotomous and count types are sometimes seen as their own. Other classifications exist. [For "scale" as a sum of individual items in psychometry - see also tag 'psychometrics'.]

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### Are dichotomous categorical variables technically interval/continuous measures?

In my university statistics book it says "Dichotomous categorical variables are easily handled in MRA. This is because they are by definition, an interval (continuous) measure.". However I ...
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### Likert scale and sample size

I want to study the satisfaction of a mother receiving paper or website information. I will have at least 5 questions, with Likert scale (5 points) each time. For the sample size: Should I calculate ...
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### What test of reliability for repeated measurements of the same scale?

I need to ask you for help on what method to use to calculate the reliability and validity of a scale that I measured repeatedly on the same subjects during an experiment. Let me explain: normally ...
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### How do I compare the results between two different Likert Scales questionnaires?

For my dissertation, I am currently evaluating pharmacy students' perception on two distinct academic electronic health record systems - A and B. The students were asked to identify how much they ...
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### Number of levels for ordinal DV, variance, and statistical significance

I am interested in how closely a person places themselves to a certain situation in the responses they give. The responses are coded, and I create a score, with the lowest value indicating the person ...
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### Test score equivalence - preparing data for Spearman correlation? [closed]

I have a somewhat theoretical question. I am trying to establish how closely scores across different language tests (IELTS, TOEFL, C1A, OET, DET) used in public domains match each other, given that ...
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### How to calculate Cronbach's Alpha for a total scale that consists of four subscales?

I have a scale that has 4 subscales. Each subscale has 5 items. For calculating Cronbach's alpha for the total scale, should I use subscale values (in this case it would be 4) or should I use ...
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### Transform data domain and maintain mean

I have a dataset, $y$, that is on some arbitrary range. I would like to transform this data to be on the range [-1,1]. This is accomplished using a linear transformation, such as the one described ...
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### Are there any theoretic or computational criteria to apply log transformation on a sample dataset?

I am developing an R shiny app that contains more than 1,000 variables as choices for the user. It plots a choropleth map and an histogram. However for many of those, the visual information is ...
1 vote
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### How to rescale these variables for comparison?

I have three variables I am comparing: two have scores which can range from 0 to 3 and one has scores which can range from 6 to 30. I want to present these variables together to allow comparison ...
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### Which is the best correlation test for variables on the Likert scale?

Which is the best test for testing correlation between a 5 Likert scale (50 questions neuroticism scale) and one 4 Likert scale (16 question burnout scale) ?
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### Scaling variables for model selection. Unscaling for final model?

I struggle with the following question: I had to scale variables for model selection as they were in very different units and the model struggled to converge. Now that I have a final model the ...
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### Comparing data/means from different surveys - same question, different likert scales

I am trying to compare data from the same series of questions that most recently was used with a 5 point scale, but the previous iteration of it used a 7 point scale. Is there a way for me to convert/...
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### Is ceiling effect mitigated by standardisation, renorming or combining with other indicators?

I have a psychological test that consist of a set of binary items. It has a noticeable ceiling effect in the sum scores (essentially, a majority of participants get most items correct). I also see ...
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### Scale Range Question

I have a very simple question for those who are familiar with scale ranges. I am interpreting a psych assessment taken for an assessment class. The assessment includes 24 different wellness scales. ...
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### Can we use "subscale scores" as "observed variables" in SEM ? + dividing a model?

I am new to SEM. My aim is to determine which factors (several intrisic and serveral extrinsic) influence school participation in children with disabilities. Some of my latent variables are scores to ...
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### Independent Subscales

What properties should there of a subscale to be used independently of the whole scale? I am looking for a scale that measures a specific perceived parenting style, but there is no scale for it. ...
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### what is the scale of TF-IDF results?

I did a classification of review text data using the ANN model. As we know, text data must be converted into numeric first before entering the classification stage. To change this I used the TF-IDF ...
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### Changing scale and rounding off Target

I am training a regression machine learning model to predict an airplane's maximum take-off weight based on some pre-project features. The airplane weights in the dataset I'm working with are ...
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### Multicollinearity in mixed log-linear model

I am currently running a mixed log-linear model which is in this form: Log yit = Xit + X2it + (1|individu) I suspect a multicollinearity ( cor (Xit , X2it) close to 1 ). Do you think it makes sense to ...
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### How to deal with missing data in DIF analysis?

I would like to do a DIF analysis on a scale The problem is that I have missing data for 10 items for the focal group The questionnaire in question exists in two forms: a 15 item version and a 25 item ...
361 views

### How to use slopes in PCA?

I would like to use slope values in PCA. The problem I face is that the slopes I calculate per group could be within different ranges of values. We know that it is important to normalize your data ...
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### Dropping a hierarchical linear model intercept when centering the outcome at 0?

Suppose a hierarchical linear model with "random intercepts" $\mu_i$ fit to some raw (unscaled) data: $$y_i \sim N(\mu_0 + \mu_i, \sigma) \\ \mu_i \sim N(0,\sigma)$$ If I rescale $y_i$ by ...
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### Do ordering and equal distances imply interval scale?

Variables measured on an ordinal scale have an order but the distance between levels has not to be 'equal'. In case distances would be equal, does this imply the variable is measured on an interval ...
1 vote
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### Scaling data for correlation test

I have a dataset of variables with different types and units (some are percentages). I was wondering whether scaling data is important before doing a correlation in this case ? I am using rcorr() from ...
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### Ranking data using a weight system

I've collected data from 4 people (id) on their number of violations at work regarding (1) logistics, (2) doing ...
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### Are summary statistics of variables interval or ratio?

Would variables that are derived from other variables via summary statistics (e.g., mean, mode, standard deviation) be classified as interval or ratio type? Or neither?
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### Continuous variable (1-100 scale) logistic function fitting

I've been working with a dataset where there are judgments of brightness from 1-100 (1= less bright) for 5 different brightness categories. patient Brightness level Judgment 1 1 10 1 4 80 1 5 99 ...
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### Do I need to validate a subscale I made in SPSS from a previously validated scale?

I am using a commonly used, validated scale on positive and negative affect. If I want to look at the effect of the negative items in isolation, does the subscale I make of the negative items need to ...
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### understanding the measurement scales in the survey

I asked this question in another sit and someone in the comment told, this is a right sit to ask this question. Please be patient with me , this is my first time asks in the sit. Nowadays, it is very ...
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### What is the level of measurement of my dependent variable?

For my master thesis I conducted an online experiment where participants had to conduct a shopping task where they were provided with a local and a non-local product three times in a row. So for three ...
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### Combing two items related to diet from a Likert scale into a new variable

Hi everybody, I have a question related to some analysis I need to do for a paper. For my dependent variable, I want to measure fruit and vegetable consumption. In the questionnaire that I use fruit ...
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### Retransforming coefficients back to original scale in regression when input is scaled in different ways(minmax, standardize, log etc)

While working on an regression problem i came across this issue where as scaling the data in different ways moves us away drastically from the real simulated parameter values. The only way in which i ...
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### Using Factor Analysis for Items on Different Scales [closed]

I have a quick question about factor analysis from different scales. Is it advisable to use, conjunctly, items from different measures? For example, if I am interested in doing EFA in the context of ...
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### Violation of application requierements / assumptions

As far as I know all methods / models making assumptions about data distribution, data scale, etc. but whenever I read a paper (political sciences) the researcher(s) are violating them (some). E.g. ...
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### How to convert percentage values from 7 point scale to 5 point scale?

Suppose in one year I had a survey with 7-point scale and the values are like ...
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### What scale of measurement is percentage?

Is the percentage of marks scored by someone or something like the population growth ratio scale of interval? Like both have an absolute zero so it makes sense for them to be ratio and not interval?
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### What is the advantage of a scoring scale with many levels?

In my research I have different ordinal variables with 3 levels of scores. Each score represents the severity of a condition. In other studies I see that the same variables are scored on a scale with ...
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### Why is it called a ratio scale?

Can you provide a simple example that clearly explains- why ratio scale is called ratio scale?
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### Do you need validators for a demographic profile questionnaire?

I am conducting a thesis and I created a survey questionnaire that would help to answer the questions in my statement of the problem. Now, I am wondering if the questionnaire I created is already good ...
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I am runing CFA in R with the lavaan package. My model is one factor with 5 variales. I set std.lv = TRUE, but the estimated factor loading is still > 1. Can I report the std.all column as my ...
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### Understanding Scales of Measurement

Looking through the various Stack Exchange groups, I think this may be the appropriate group. Apologies if I should have posted this elsewhere. I have been reading about Scales of Measurement (Nominal,...
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### When do we REALLY need to distinguish interval from ratio measurement levels?

This question is specifically aimed toward the practice of statistics and data science and toward statistics educators (particularly introductory level statistics). In brief, ¿when do we really need ...
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### random sampling with replacement of variables, not just cases [closed]

I have k = 24 indicators for a latent construct. In fact, these indicators are interchangeable. To reduce the number of indicators for a scale measuring the latent construct I would like to randomly ...
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### Likert Scales and summed scores

I cannot seem to find consensus on the following so hopefully someone can shed some light on it. I have 5-point Likert scale Strongly Agree, Agree, Neither Agree nor disagree, disagree, strongly ...
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### Clustering and data scaling

I have a dataset with 5 questions, which are scaled 1-10 and income variable, which is nominal. Should I standardise all variables with min/max scaler, or convert income to 1-10 scale? What is the ...
1 vote
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### Dimensionality Reduction Techniques Ordinal Variables on different scales

I have a data set that is a mix between Ordinal variables and numerical variables. The problem is that the ordinal variables are on different scales, such as 0-2, 1-4. The data set has 35 variables. I ...
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### Is it legitimate to combine two scales of interest on different topics to one based on the intervention condition?

I am doing research where we study students' motivation when working on physics learning tasks. In doing so, we give students learning tasks that are motivated by different contexts, so that they ...
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