Questions tagged [scales]

Scales used to express measurements. Usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal types of scales are recognized. Dichotomous and count types are sometimes seen as their own. Other classifications exist. [For "scale" as a sum of individual items in psychometry - see also tag 'scale construction'.]

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19 views

Principal component analysis 6 variables

I am using 6 variables that cover manager characteristics and are categorical variables (1-5) and since they have a high correlation I thought I should use PCA. Now only the first variable has an ...
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7 views

Normalise a Positive and / or Negative number between 0 and 100, negative numbers should appear lower in the range relative to the data set

Hoping someone out there can help me with a formula that normalises positive and negative numbers between 0 and 100. Here's a sample data set: Features of this data set: Always only 8 values to ...
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21 views

comparing the performance of a score across different populations2

A very well validated score exists. This score predicts mortality after disease A when patients present from country W . The score is a 4 point score. If a subject presents from the community with ...
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1answer
20 views

comparing the performance of a score across different populations

A very well validated score exists. This score predicts mortality after disease A when patients present from country W . The score is a 4 point score. If a subject presents from the community with ...
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0answers
6 views

How should low factor loadings affect interpretation of the factor's correlation with another variable?

In a research project I am working on for university, I used 18 items to measure 4 variables. This measurement instrument has been validated in previous literature. I ran a factor analysis with 4 ...
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6 views

Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) scaling problem

I would like to use different scales for different criteria in my AHP model. Qualitative criteria should be weighted using Saaty's (1-9) scale. Quantitative criteria using either w_1=percentage c_1/...
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16 views

Normalising time series data by group

I trained the LSTM model to forecast the number of people infected with COVID-19. Since each country and state (geo location) has different number of population as well as the infected over time, I ...
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38 views

Can z-score transformation ever be undesirable? [duplicate]

I am new to the field and learned about scaling (by z score transformation) of data. While it seems a super useful and universal technique, I have learned that no technique is applicable to each and ...
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1answer
37 views

difference between interval scale and ratio scale in classifying Data

I was reading about 'different types of data'. I understood the concept of nominal and order based data. But I did not have a clear picture about the difference between interval and ratio scaled data. ...
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38 views

What are the scale and location parameters of the Student's t distribution?

I would like advice on how to correctly set the parameters (loc and scale) for the student T distribution that best fits my data of daily stock returns. I'm pulling random numbers from a student T ...
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5 views

Factor analysis on variables measured using different scales across respondents

I have a data set composed of two groups of respondents. All respondents saw the same questions (variables) corresponding to 2 different scales. I want to perform an exploratory factor analysis on the ...
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2answers
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Should I normalize all data prior feeding the tensorflow models?

Appreciate your wisdom on this, My understanding is most of the tutorials recommend normalizing / scaling the data prior feeding the tensorflow models. Doesn't normalization require that data ...
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10 views

How to develop a valid scale for data from multiple countries?

I am trying to asses the level of political and social trust using the European Social Survey data, which contains data from different European countries. Using EFA I want create two scales, based ...
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Is this the right way of using the Likert scale on test results?

I would like to know if this is how to apply the Likert scale on test results: I will divide the score (25 points) into 5 levels. First is those who got 0-5, second is 6-10, third is 11-15, fourth is ...
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17 views

Which test is most appropriate for a relationship between two continuous variables using different scales?

Please forgive me if this is a common query but I haven't seen anything which quite answers what I'm looking for. I'm using data concerning the weight change and pH values of plastic samples, the ...
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22 views

What scale should I use to measure the test results for my research?

I don't know the right tag for my question. Please read and tell me the tag I should put. I would like to know what statistical tool I can use for my research. I am a student of Bachelor of Arts in ...
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Should one scale the predictors for option pricing?

I am not sure to know when one should scale the data used for feeding a NN. I am trying to modelize the B&S formula using NN and for that I simulate option pricing for many options with random ...
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9 views

normalising different scales

The general consensus when normalising scales is by transforming the data through this equation:$$z_i=\frac{x_i-\min(x)}{\max(x)-\min(x)}$$ are there any assumptions made with this equation? What if ...
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12 views

Regarding Factor anaLysis(EFA) and formative and reflective constructs

Is there any relation between Factor analysis(EFA) and reflective and formative constructs? In factor analysis usually the factors emerged i think are reflective as each factor depicts the ...
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25 views

Convert negative to positive percentage range into 1-10 scale

I know how to convert a range of positive % numbers into any positive integer scale, but am having trouble figuring out how to do it when my % range includes negative %s. Example: I have the ...
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17 views

Internal consistency: Alternative measures for unidimensional scales with a small number of items?

I use r and analyze a scale of 11 items, theoretically assuming one global factor and three group factors. Since a CFA revealed numerous correlated errors and due to the criticism of cronbachs alpha (...
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Leveling the field for a race competition

I'm not sure if this is really a statistics question, but I can't think of a more fitting Stack Exchange for it. My friends and I at work are having a competition to see who can decrease their one-...
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What's “the clinically important absolute scale”?

In this article, the authors used the sentence "...risk difference (i.e., treatment effect on the clinically important absolute scale)". What did they mean by "clinically important absolute scale"? ...
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Analyzing Two likert scales

Our study suggests that when one persons job crafting level increases, his or her burnout level decreases. I and my coworkers used 2 different likert scale questionnaires, one that measures job ...
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How to calculate composite score with a 2-factor scale

Suppose I have a scale with four items meant to measure, say, happiness. I ran a confirmatory factor analysis and the model fits well with two factors and let's say that the two factors are 1) ...
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56 views

How to create a score for a SWOT matrix (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats)

I'm developing a participatory social environmental diagnostic. To do this, I'm using primary (qualitative data from interviews with stakeholders) and secondary data (local socioeconomic data). From ...
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any scale can be used when comparing race results?

I was reading this statistical analysis: http://homepage.divms.uiowa.edu/~dzimmer/sports-statistics/stats4track.pdf The analysis says that as race increases, we see more variance: in the results of ...
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161 views

Group By and Scale Data vs Scaling Data Without Grouping

I have a panel data set that covers 20 earnings dates for 50 companies. I would like to know if I should scale data by the ticker or just scale the data without grouping. What would be the pros and ...
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201 views

Ratio Measurement Scale and Absolute Zero

Levels of measurement are: Nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. What happens when the absolute zero of a data set using the ratio scale is a negative number? I.E when the absolute zero is -25,000? ...
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1answer
10 views

Meaningful outcome measure

I'm conducting a research about deaths due to a certain medication. I know the number of deaths, which is rather small (from 4 to 20 a month) compared to the total of times that the drug was used (~8 ...
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1answer
831 views

how to scale the density plot for my histogram

I have the histogram plot and I'd like to overlap it with density line for the same data. Importantly, I don't want to turn histogram into density values, but want to keep N (numbers) on y axis. Is ...
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10 views

How To Feed Un-Scaled Data Into a Model That Was Trained on Scaled Data

I have a data frame that contains time series data. I split the dataframe into test and train. I want to prevent leakage so I split the data frame before doing any scaling. On the train data set, I ...
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29 views

Mclust 5.0: Scale dependent? Multiple data types

Have been working in Mplus for quite a long time with clustering and mixture analyses and have recently had occasion to consider using Mclust in a collaborative project. However, it is not clear to me ...
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211 views

Reference thesis for outliers in likert scale data

I have a data set that was collected in form of a liker scale through questioners. Now, i am trying to eliminate or identify outliers in my data. By far, from all that i have been able to search, ...
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29 views

Reliability estimation for questionnaire - is Cronbach's a applicable?

I am fairly new to scale analysis and I need to estimate the reliability and validity of a 5 item scale (5 questions, 2 have 4 choices abcd and 3 have 2 choices ab). The scale is supposed to be ...
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1answer
40 views

Including binary data during pca [closed]

I'm doing some PCA on scaled features but where I also have some binary variables. When I include the binary features they seem to really impact the PCA and I'm concerned that they will also ...
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1answer
234 views

Are parametric tests only subject to ratio and interval scale measurements?

I had doubts on the above flow chart based on measurement scales which I found in a published article. Can anyone correct m please and clear my doubts as I believe non parametric tests are not ...
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26 views

Which Comes First: Standardization or Transformation?

I have a data frame that contains a few variables where the skew is larger than 1. Also most of the variables have vastly different scales. I am looking to scale the data using R's scale() function (...
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50 views

Multivariate test for likert scale data in r programming

I have a data of likert scale type, collected to know the 'level of awareness of individuals' about various investment options. I want to check if there is significant difference in level of ...
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2answers
71 views

Why the distribution $Y/\sigma$ does not depend on $\sigma$?

This book describes the scale parameter as below: Suppose $\sigma$ is a scale parameter, in the sense that $p(y|\sigma)=\sigma^{-1}f(y/\sigma)$ for some function $f$, so that the distribution ...
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37 views

Statistically Analyzing Numerical Rating Scale

I'm creating a survey to administer to food inspectors n=30 for an internship project. I want to find their opinions related to food truck and restaurant food poisoning topics and see if their ...
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2answers
51 views

Developing a 40-100 scoring system (doesn't work as intended) [closed]

I am using r. I have a dataset with this distribution There are 1275 observations with values ranging from ~ -0.07 to mostly 0.08. I have 4 outliers that are over 0.8 (0.12, 0.12, 0.12 and 0.10). I ...
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30 views

which normalization method is appropriate for regression problem?

I have a regression problem. I have 3 features: X1 is in the range (0.7 , 1.3) X2 is in the range (0.4 , 0.5) X3 is in the range (4.5 , 5.5) and Y is in the range (115 , 719) I started trying ...
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1answer
105 views

Hypothesis testing - Which stat test to use with multiple choices (with both single and multiple responses)

I'm writing my master thesis but I have some problems with the analysis of the data collected using an online survey. The aim of the research is to assess if there are differences between two groups ...
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Interesting and unusual dependent variable--how do you think it should be handled?

We have 2 dependent measures, which are both distributed from -4 to +4 in discrete steps. This is because the values are based on people's responses to four questions about whether they spend more ...
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492 views

How can I use scaling and log transforming together?

I'm creating a regular linear regression model to establish a baseline before moving on to more advanced techniques. I scaled my data as below: ...
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55 views

Regression output scale

I am using XGBoost (gradient boosting) to predict the value of a continuous dependent variable The figure below shows a histogram of both the dependent variable data and the predicted data. (blue is ...
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2answers
177 views

comparing 2 surveys on same question but with 2 different scales

I have results from 2 surveys asking the same question. One allows for a single answer, the other allows for up to 2 answers. Is there any way to compare the 2 surveys? He are the numbers: Survey A: ...
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16 views

What formula do i use to scale these numbers

If x=51 then y=0 and if x=255 then y=2000 Is there such a formula to find y by using an x value between 51-255
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258 views

Interval scale variables in R

This is a question I found surprisingly hard to answer using Google: How is interval scaled data implemented in R? For nominal, its factor(), for ordinal, it's ordered(), and for ratio scale, it's ...

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