Questions tagged [scales]

Scales used to express measurements. Usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal types of scales are recognized. Dichotomous and count types are sometimes seen as their own. Other classifications exist. [For "scale" as a sum of individual items in psychometry - see also tag 'psychometrics'.]

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Is there any research that compares Likert scale questions to “satisfaction” scale questions?

I'm trying to put together a questionnaire for measuring employee satisfaction with an internal process. I'd like to figure out if there is reason to prefer: ...
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1answer
760 views

Creating a disease severity score/index

I am trying to design a numerical scale which would describe the severity of a certain disease (in this particular case anaphylaxis). I have a set of clinical symptoms and a database of patients who ...
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2answers
123 views

Which measurement level would this be?

I have a variable times of collaboration: the possible answers are 0 (meaning no collaboration), 1, 2, or 3. Would this mean I am dealing with an interval measurement level?
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How to Deal with Peaks and Valleys on Scale Data

I've got a questionnaire/scale from 0-8, let's say it's a mood scale (0 = no depression, 8 = most depressed ever felt), subjects fill in a bubble along the scale, but the numbers aren't there, only ...
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1answer
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Calculating Cronbach's alpha: Same scale, multiple instances

I'm working on data analysis for my dissertation, and I'm banging my head against the wall when it comes to Cronbach's alpha. I just completed a pretest; after data cleaning, I have 119 valid and ...
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1answer
48 views

tests one multi-question item effect on another multi-question item

I have two Constructs (composite variables), each Construct has its own measurement scale (questions). First Construct is named CETSCALE and it consists of 17 questions, second Construct consists of ...
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Factor analysis with varimax rotation gives very different answer from PCA?

I asked expert raters to evaluate several subject on six dimensions of creativity. Now, I am using factor analysis (factanal()) and PCA(princomp()) to see of these dimensions are measuring distinct ...
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3k views

Likert scale based composite variables

I am conducting a small research into the adoption of smart home technologies for elderly people. In this research I have conducted both questionnaires and interviews, with the questionnaire being ...
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276 views

Likert Scale 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 possible?

In my questionnaire I want to ask people to score on a dimensional Likert-type scale their attitude toward a specific target group. E.g. People with .... are stupid.... intelligent. I want to use ...
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How to normalize the data to [0, 1] in R with data similar to χ²-distribution without shrinking lower values too much?

I want to normalize the data to [0,1], but the distribution of this array is quite not regular, having large quantity of low values and small quantity of large values, almost 80% values of data are in ...
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2answers
107 views

Scales of Measurement

when we use the term " scales of measurement", what do we mean by scale by Measurement ? As far i know, measurement denotes "a value" and scale denotes "the unit" of the value. So if i say, the ...
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When should I apply feature scaling for my data [duplicate]

I had a discussion with a colleague and we started to wonder, when should one apply feature normalization / scaling to the data? Let's say we have a set of features with some of the features having a ...
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2answers
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Revert minmax normalization to original value

I'm training a neural network. Normalization of inputs and outputs (training data) is carried out using min and max to a scale of [0-1]. I'm applying backpropagation learning algorithm. I need to get ...
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1answer
595 views

libsvm: scaling data results in less features?

I've scaled my training and testing data in BASH like so: ...
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2answers
526 views

Latent Class Analysis vs Rasch Analysis

I was wondering if anybody could explain the core, philosophical/conceptual differences between Latent Class Analysis and Rasch Analysis. I'm not necessarily referring to the exact mathematical ...
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1answer
86 views

Need help with deciding on statistical test for three separate instruments

So I am trying to analyze my data. I used the following scales: Brief RCOPE, the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS), and the Satisfaction with Life scale (SWLS). They ...
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Why does the scaling of feature vectors improve performance of SVM classifier?

I've found that performing scaling in SVM problems really improves the performance of SVM ... But I don't understand why! I have read this explanation: "The main advantage of scaling is to avoid ...
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1answer
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what “non-continuous nature of scores” means

1) Can someone explain me the idea of this sentence: "It is noted that nonparametric tests were employed because of the non-continuous nature of the scale scores" (this is related to scale validity ...
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1answer
72 views

Scale creation - how to know if concept B is part of concept A, or a separate concept

I have to create a survey that will measure customers' attitude to home products. Imagine: I have concept A (it could be consumer ethnocentrism, for example). I am going to measure it using 10 items (...
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Choosing between two scales

I am investigating a scale of consumer ethnocentrism - CETSCALE. I do not have much knowledge in econometrics, scales, etc., however: a) research papers report that the standard 17-item scale is ...
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1answer
195 views

What is the “scale” parameter in “continuous autoregressive model” in cts package?

I am trying to use the "car" command in "cts package" in R program and I see the "scale" parameter there. I wonder whether this can be assumed to be equivalent to time intervals for time series ...
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2answers
202 views

scale of measurements in sign test and signed rank test

Can some one help me to understand the right scale of measurement to use in sign test as well as in signed rank test? I read a certain book it says nominal scale is used in sign test while ordinal ...
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1answer
798 views

Eliminated items in Factor Analysis

I'd like to get your opinions on how to interpret items that had to be eliminated in factor analysis (FA). I've been researching consumer shopping motivations and ran a survey with 40 items, which ...
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57 views

Can one variable explain if another variable is preferred more than others?

I have a questionnaire consisting of 7 multi item scales. The first four multi item scale each represents if a respondent performs a giving role and the remaining 3 multi item scales each represent a ...
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1answer
33 views

Scale of variables and the consequences on the solution

Let us say I have data set of distinct $x_i$. A Gaussian is fitted to it with maximum likelihood, obtaining some $\mu$ and some $\sigma^2$. I will also obtain a likelihood $\mathcal{L}$. Now, I copy ...
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0answers
101 views

How to scale data in a log-lin regression

I am currently doing exam revision, and I am stuck on a question in one of the past exams. It asks us to data scale the following equation: $\ln W$ = 2.54 + 0.4Educ...
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1answer
982 views

Questionnaire design - Agree/Disagree scale

I recently constructed a questionnaire to carry out a market survey on soap brands used. One of the questions which was asked was to rate few statements which influence the respondent to buy a certain ...
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67 views

Transforming Rank-Ordered Variable

I am currently working on an archival dataset (General Social Survey 1985). In a measure, participants are asked to rank 5 job characteristics by degree of preference. In other words, participants ...
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5k views

Transforming scores between different rating scales – Importance of response options

I'm working on a meta analysis of the mean of a single variable (using arithmetic mean as the effect size, rather than the relationship between two variables). The attitude I'm assessing has been ...
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0answers
68 views

Scale of control variable in ANCOVA

I am new to the field of ANCOVAs. I want to check if two groups differ in three quantitative variables. At the same time I would like to control for gender and diagnose (6 categories). Is it ...
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0answers
105 views

Regression analysis of different ranges in percent?

I have two variables, both percentages but have been converted to decimal numbers, and one variable ranges from roughly 15-30 percent and the other ranges from 55-70 percent. The lower range is my ...
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3answers
8k views

What criteria must be met in order to conclude a 'ceiling effect' is occurring?

According to The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods… [a] ceiling effect occurs when a measure possesses a distinct upper limit for potential responses and a large concentration ...
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1answer
183 views

Log-scaled chart for visualizing extreme range

I need a simple bar chart or the like. I am not a statistician by any means, but this chart is supposed to accurately represent FileIO in MB/s compared to the theoretical peak of a specific drive. ...
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1answer
73 views

composite scale to measure child-parent relationship

For my research on Mental health problems and correlates, child-parent relationship have identified as a correlate. Child-parent relationship is planned to measure with 6 questions and each question ...
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1answer
4k views

Calculating scale mean from item means

I'm working on a review paper and need to collect the means and standard deviations of a given measure (such as a measure of depression) from papers of interest. However, some authors report means and ...
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1answer
2k views

How to calculate max/min scales on a scatter plot

I have 3 log scatter plots that I want to establish smooth maximum and minimum lines. What is the usual mathematical method to do that? (Image and Excel file links below.) The black lines on the ...
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1answer
2k views

How to solve the problem, that the scale of variables influence the gradient/optimization

I've the problem that, using something related to Fisher-scoring, the gradient, which is usually the sum over a variable times a value which depends upon the parameter we are looking for, the updates ...
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2answers
9k views

How to scale new observations for making predictions when the model was fitted with scaled data?

I understand the concept of scaling the data matrix to use in a linear regression model. For example, in R you could use: ...
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1answer
1k views

Scaling data: why not standardize response variable to unit variance (in addition to zero mean)?

I have been reading Elements of Statistical Learning. And I saw some example R codes written online. I realise that very often the explanatory variables $X$ (the data of the predictors) are ...
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2answers
480 views

Basic information about partial correlation

I'm quite new to this topic, so this is probably very basic for most of you: I want to analyse the relationship of multiple variables via partial correlation as an alternative for a regression ...
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1answer
783 views

How to rank criteria based on survey response?

I have made a survey to weight the importance of different features of a credit card using a 5 point Likert scale with scores (very important = 5...neither important or unimportant = 1). I have 8 ...
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1answer
4k views

Comparing correlations of variables with different scales

I have a couple of variables with different scales - I don't want to use contingency tables so Is there a way to calculate all the correlations with different methods and then compare them?
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4answers
7k views

If a measure is valid (but not necesarily reliable), can it be consistently replicated?

I had this question on an exam, and I was positive that the answer was A. The Beck Depression Inventory is a scale intended to measure depression levels, with higher scores indicative of higher ...
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0answers
377 views

Different Likert scales used in statistical anlysis [duplicate]

I am using different Likert Scales in questionnaire. Three dependent variables have Likert scales of 4 points, 2 points and 2 points. Three independent variables have 3 points scales. One moderating ...
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1answer
5k views

Advice/literature on combining items with different response scales into composite scales?

Let's say I have some self-report items measured on a 5-point Likert scale (Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree) and other items measured on a 4-point Likert scale (Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Often). ...
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1answer
5k views

How to calculate ratings/rankings from Paired comparison / Pairwise comparison of large data-sets?

As part of my graduate thesis (area: psychology) I have gathered preference data. The data includes approximately 50000 heads-up comparison between elementX and elementX. I have a total of 15 elements....
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3answers
4k views

Why are multiplication and division not allowed when using the interval scale?

This is what I already know: There is no true zero value on interval scales like temperature. The zero value doesn't state that temperature becomes unavailable at that point. Zero is just a human ...
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1answer
790 views

Validation of a questionnaire in a new population

I have 400 responses to a 20 item questionnaire which purports to measure an attitudinal constuct in medical students. The instrument was validated in the US for a single year of medical students and ...
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1answer
2k views

CFA Fit Measure Thresholds for New Scales

A well established questionnaire measuring interpersonal relations is modified to measure interorganizational relations. 11 parameters of the relation are determined by 4 items each. Items are removed ...
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1answer
1k views

Calculating total score for a scale including polytomous and dichotomous items [duplicate]

I have a variable that is measured using a 13-item, 4-point Likert scale with the exception of one item (yes $=1$, no $=2)$. How can I calculate the total score for this variable?

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