Questions tagged [scales]

Scales used to express measurements. Usually ratio, interval, ordinal or nominal types of scales are recognized. Dichotomous and count types are sometimes seen as their own. Other classifications exist. [For "scale" as a sum of individual items in psychometry - see also tag 'psychometrics'.]

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1answer
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How can I compare Likert scale data of two clusters in SPSS?

In SPSS, I want to compare two clusters of management sciences department faculty members in two universities. Which test should I use? Can you explain how to do it in SPSS?
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1answer
567 views

Does a psychological scale need to be revalidated after reducing the number of response options from 9 to 4?

I have used an established 33-item empathy questionnaire. I have modified the scale from a 9 point to a 4 point scale in order to force an answer and reduce ambiguity. Do I need to retest the ...
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Log-scale with concentrated data using integers

I have a data set with a range of 0 to 65,000. The vast majority of data points (it is a huge sample) are concentrated between 0 and 1000. There is only one point that has 65,000. I want to plot ...
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How to compare Likert scales with varying number of categories across time?

Let Year 1 be last year's data and Year 2 be this year's data. Suppose that in Year 1, you had a likert scale that was 1-9 (Categorical/Ordinal) and that in Year 2, for the same question you had a ...
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2answers
4k views

Weight a rating system to favor items rated highly by more people over items rated highly by fewer people?

Thanks in advance for bearing with me, I am not a statistician of any kind and don't know how to describe what I'm imagining, so Google isn't helping me here... I'm including a rating system in a web ...
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1answer
7k views

Internal reliability for an ordinal scale

My teacher is asking whether it is possible to look at the Cronbachs's alpha when looking at the internal reliability of an ordinal scale. She thinks, because you use the mean of it, it is not ...
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4answers
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Can one validly reduce the numbers of items in a published Likert-scale?

[edits made in response to feedback- thanks :-) ] Doh! More edits! Sorry! Hello- I am doing some rather rough and ready data collection with a survey sent out to healthcare staff using a published ...
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3answers
8k views

Validating questionnaires

I am designing a questionnaire for my dissertation. I am in the process of validating the questionnaire I have applied a Cronbach's alpha test to the initial sample group. The responses to the ...
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3answers
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How to calculate Rousseeuw’s and Croux’ (1993) Qn scale estimator for large samples?

Let $Q_n = C_n.\{|X_i-X_j|;i < j\}_{(k)}$ so for a very short sample like $\{1,3,6,2,7,5\}$ it can be calculated from finding the $k$th order static of pairwise differences: ...
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3answers
12k views

Visualizing Likert Item Response Data

What are good ways to visualize set of Likert responses? For example, a set of items inquiring about the importance of X to one's decisions about A, B, C, D, E, F & G? Is there something better ...
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2answers
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Item Analysis for an R newbie

I am trying to assess a 20-item multliple choice test. I want to perform an item analysis such as can be found in this example. So for each question I want the P-value and the correlation with the ...
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1answer
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Data transformation for Principal Components Analysis from different Likert scales

I have data from a survey comprised of several measures that used different Likert-type scaling (4-, 5-, and 6-point scales). I would like to run a principal components analysis using the data from ...
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1answer
267 views

Dealing with missing data due to variable not being measured over initial period of a study

I was recently consulting a researcher in the following situation. Context: data were collected over four years at around 50 participants per year (participants had a specific diagnosed clinical ...
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1answer
141 views

How can I adjust classifier to the scale of the other

I have 2 classifiers with different scales. How can I adjust one classifier to the scale of the other without loss of quality? On the scatter plot we have 2 solutions plotted (x1, x2) against each ...
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5answers
2k views

How to rank the results of questions with categorical answers?

I'm working with the results of a survey which has multiple questions. All answers (in this case) are categorical and ordinal (such as very unhappy, unhappy, neutral, happy, very happy). I'm looking ...
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6answers
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Is it appropriate to treat n-point Likert scale data as n trials from a binomial process?

I've never liked how people typically analyze data from Likert scales as if error were continuous & Gaussian when there are reasonable expectations that these assumptions are violated at least at ...
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3answers
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Factor analysis of questionnaires composed of Likert items

I used to analyse items from a psychometric point of view. But now I am trying to analyse other types of questions on motivation and other topics. These questions are all on Likert scales. My initial ...
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3answers
7k views

How to test group differences on a five point variable?

I have a series of observations that fall into bins (or "scores"); that is, the data can be 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4. There are two groups of such data, control and treated. I know the number of individuals ...
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3answers
507 views

How to reduce number of items on a multi-item scale where each item requires ranking four response options

Context I have a survey of 16 questions, each with four possible responses. The purpose of the survey is to measure the respondent's propensity towards four categories (which we will denote A, B, C, ...
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6answers
26k views

Group differences on a five point Likert item

Following on from this question: Imagine that you want to test for differences in central tendency between two groups (e.g., males and females) on a 5-point Likert item (e.g., satisfaction with life: ...
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4answers
100k views

Under what conditions should Likert scales be used as ordinal or interval data?

Many studies in the social sciences use Likert scales. When is it appropriate to use Likert data as ordinal and when is it appropriate to use it as interval data?

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