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Questions tagged [sem]

Structural Equation Modeling is a multivariate technique popular in social sciences. It is based on formulating a set of linear relations between variables, some of which may be latent, and estimating the whole system, typically by analyzing the covariance matrix of the observed variables.

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Correlation above 1 between second-order and first-order latent variable

So I ran CFA on an exhaustion measure comprising of three facets which were specified as first-order latent variables. When I added a secon-order latent variable to the model the correlation between ...
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Help in understanding how we arrive at 'reduced form equations'

Referring to equations 1 and 2 above, I understand that the object is to estimate the endogenous variables (consumption (c) and income(y)) as a function of the exogenous or predetermined variables. ...
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SURE is the best instrument for the analysis of simultaneous equation model?

I would want to make a study about the influence of some regressors in the evaluation of the effects of increment of subsidy in an economic sector. I would use SURE (Seemingly UnRelated Equations ...
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Regressing a response on predictors at a lower level of aggregation: combined election and survey data

Combining two secondary datasets, we are interested in finding out the effect of political outcome variables (e.g. mayor's party and percentage of vote) at a low administrative level (e.g. township) ...
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Validating A Model On Pre-Test Post-Test Design

I am phd candidate at primary education department. My aim is to validate a model but i have not find a exact answer yet. I have 2 groups. (Actually 4 but only 2 of them are going to use to validate ...
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How to run a SEM mediation test with common method bias

Say the model I am working with is simply: M <- IV DV <- IV + M All three constructs are obtained using the same survey, hence the common method bias ...
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17 views

Specifying a null model for path analysis [closed]

I'm struggling with the final step (or technically what should have been the first step?) of making a null model. In the article, the authors state that the null represents a situation where none of ...
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34 views

Analysis by SEM in variables with different Likert scale

I have a questionnaire that measures two variables. The first variable is measured with 5-point Likert But second variable is measured by questions with 5 and 3 point Likert and dichotomous (YES, NO). ...
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28 views

AMOS: Model is unidentified requires 26 additional constraints! How to fix? [closed]

After running model on AMOS I am not getting any output path and this note appears in the text output: "The model is probably unidentified. In order to achieve identifiability, it will probably be ...
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Multilevel Mediation Analysis (2-1-1-2 mediation) in R

I aim to perform a 2-1-1-2 mediation analysis with Trait A being the IV, Trait B being the DV (both on Level 2) and both State A and State B being two Level-1 mediators. I assume the Level-1-mediators ...
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27 views

RMSEA confidence interval interpretation

Using Amos for a multi-group path analysis, my model of choice, the "measurement weights" model has an RMSEA value of .033 a LO value of .000, a Hi value of .065, and PCLOSE value of .784. Is it an ...
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Identification and estimation of my structural model with a latent variable

I am having some trouble trying to identify the parameters in the following structural model that I am trying to estimate. $$ y = a'x_1 + \beta\eta + \epsilon_1 $$ $$ \eta = b'x_2 + \delta T+\...
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29 views

SEM setup question: Dummy coding with interaction term

I have an SEM that fits well according to several metrics and returns meaningful results. However, I'm not sure if the structure is valid. I have 3 between subjects conditions (2 treatments and one ...
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Problem with assessing bidirectional effects

My dataset has four endogenous variables, namely, employment (emp), addiction (addict), depression (...
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13 views

How to interpret low fit of bifactor SEM model?

I am trying to evaluate the psychometric properties of a questionnaire instrument using bifactor SEM. A bifactor model with five group factors has the best fit, and this model has “good” RMSEA and ...
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27 views

Understanding the non-identifiability and handling of categorical variables in SEM

I have three questions about SEM and I'll ask the questions using an example that I have been working with. The dataset has employment (emp), addiction (...
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Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models?

Are EFA and/or ESEM models on the same data set with different factor solutions nested models? If yes, how are they nested? Are EFA and/or ESEM models and more restrictive CFA models on the same data ...
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Can causal Bayes Nets compute counterfactuals? If so, are they “worse” than structural causal model counterfactuals?

I was under the impression that you couldn't perform counterfactual reasoning on causal Bayes nets using inference algorithms and do-calculus, but I realized recently that this might not be true. ...
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32 views

Why are variances of observed variables estimated in Factor Analysis / SEM?

Let's say we have one latent factor L and three observed variables X1, X2 and X3. From the variance/covariance matrix of X1, X2, X3, we create this latent factor that explains the most out of the ...
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In SEM, what exactly are regresssion weights and which ones should be fixed to 1?

Are regression weights in SEM the same thing as in say, a weight in linear regression (for each 1 more of this predictor, there's 2 more of y)? And how should you decide which weight should be fixed ...
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38 views

Using binary factors as predictor variables in piecewiseSEM in R

I am looking for help with the use of categorical binary predictor variables in the piecewiseSEM package in R. I am inspecting the effect of two categorical variables on one continuous response ...
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Is path analysis a statistic or a mechanistic approach?

Path analysis (i.e. a special case of Structural Equations Modelling without latent variables) is a statistical technique used to test causal hypothesis with multiple variables but can be considered ...
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Two distinct latent class analysis applied to the same sample. How investigate the relationship?

I have applied two different latent class analysis to the same sample, in the sense that I want to cluster this sample twice, following two different perspectives. For example, I want to cluster the ...
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How to explain variance in SEM?

I am writing a paper discussion based on SEM findings to a non-statistical audience. For example, how do we explain the concept of R-square (variance) in plain language -- 'The model rationalizes a ...
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Is it possible to use experimental data with SEM by trimming factors?

I have a large dataset related to a full factorial experiment research (3 factors 2 levels, DV’s were measured, through a questionnaire, controls, moderators, marker, etc, (i.e picture) I would like ...
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Should I use Structural Equation Models (SEM) for my Functional Diversity (FD) study? (ECOLOGY RELATED)

I'm trying to calculate various functional diversity measures (Fric, Feve and Fdiv) for bird communities by using count data which is collected annually. My ultimate aim is to compare functional ...
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LM Stat - Confirmatory Factor Analysis

The output of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis provides the "LM Stat provides a rank order of the 10 largest LM stat for Path Relations." Can we include more than one path into the model or are we ...
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Confirmatory Factor Analysis - Variance Parameters - Error Variance Estimates

I am referring to a confirmatory factor analysis output. I am curious to know how do we interpret the "Variance Parameters" Output containing the "error variance estimates" if the predictors are ...
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39 views

Statistical Modelling of a complex experimental design

I have the following experimental design, and am quite uncertain which statistical approach would be the best to investigate my data. I have three experimental treatments of my participants and would ...
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39 views

How can one get consistent (i.e. direct+indirect=total) effects in a Meta-Analytic SEM model with latent variables?

I have a mediation model with latent variables using datasets from a few studies. In particular, one of the latent variables is the outcome, while the others are tested as possible mediators of a ...
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1answer
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computing values of a latent variable

Is there an easy way to compute the (standardized) values of latent variables so that it generates a new variable to the dataset. I am working with Stata. The SEM model builder doesn't seem to offer ...
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Do cross-lagged path models require balanced panel data?

I am interested in running a cross-lagged panel model of X versus Y, based on three waves of data. However, my Y outcome variable is only measured at Time 2 and 3, but not at Time 1. In contrast, my ...
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Problems evaluating whether there are structural group differences in my path analysis model

I want to evaluate if I there are structural group differences (two groups) in my path analysis model. I compared the models with and without allowing group differences (lavaan:: sem(..., group =)): ...
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57 views

How to identify a Bayesian SEM parameter in R package blavaan

I have fit a Bayesian SEM using the R package blavaan. ...
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Evaluate Bayesian SEM goodness of fit blavaan

I'm currently trying to identify how to evaluate model fit with Bayesian SEM. I've been reading that the posterior predictive p-value can be used, with a p-value of approximately 0.5 indicating good ...
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P-hacking and structural equation modeling

SEM involes testing the significance of the relationship of dozens if not scores of observed variables with latent variables. After this, the relationship between several latent variables are tested ...
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High value of R-squared correlation on behavioral intention while very low value of R-squared correlation on actual use of mobile shopping app

I have been working on antecedents of mobile shopping with UTAUT-2 model combined with the constructs of trust and perceived risk. I am using a sample of international students for my study. I wanted ...
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Steps for holdout validation in SEM

I have been advised to split my sample (n=2067) randomly in half (plus or minus 1), to use 1/2 to test my hypothesized model using SEM, make modifications, then use the second 1/2 to validate the ...
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Items measured with 5 and 7 point Likert scale in PLS-SEM analysis

Some items in the questionnaire were measured with the 7-point Likert scale and some with the 5-point one. I am doing PLS-SEM analysis of the data in SmartPLS. Are there any additional steps to take ...
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Investigating the change of a network / factorial structure over time

I have several variables (questions from a questionnaire) that regroup into several factors (using factor analysis). However, I would be interested in knowing how this factorial structure changes ...
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387 views

“The model is probably unidentified” AMOS

I am doing a CFA in AMOS and I keep getting the error message: "The model is probably unidentified. In order to achieve identifiability, it will probably be necessary to impose 1 additional constraint....
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144 views

The Book of Why, Table 8.1, Counterfactuals example

I'm reading "The Book of Why" by Judea Pearl and I'm getting an answer for a problem that doesn't match what the book says. This is my first foray into Structural Causal Models and their use, so I ...
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Coding resources: Accessible introductions to Bayesian Structural Time series?

Hello, all. I am asking this question in not necessarily a "subjectively recommend something for me" approach, but with a clear focus on just an accessible beginner's reference. My situation is I have ...
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Residual variance of a variable in Structured Equation Modeling

I am following lavaan package in R to implement SEM. I have a doubt for residual correlation equation. http://lavaan.ugent.be/tutorial/sem.html in general, in residual correlations equations, y1 ~~...
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SEM with skipped questions in survey

I have conducted a survey on social media. One of the questions asks if you ever use a chatforum. If they answer "no" they skip question 2-5. Thus, I will have missing data despite that they are not ...
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28 views

How to proceed when collapsing ordinal items with levels that got no answer?

I have a set of 8 Likert-type items with 9 levels each. In no case do we have an item for which responses fill all possibilities and this has shown to be an issue for the SEM I'm trying to run (as ...
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69 views

Fitting issues when including certain combination of variables with lavaan::cfa()

I am trying to fit 13 ordinal indicator variables to a single factor, but there are three of them that will result in a warning when they're included simultaneously. You can find the code below (data ...
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Analyzing latent time invariant predictors and time variant outcome variable

I have 5 time invariant manifest variables that load onto 2 latent variables: l1 =~ x1+ x2 + x3 and l2 =~ x4 + x5 and one time ...
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2answers
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Lavaan SEM Ordinal and Categorical variables

In my model I have dichotomous variables (gender, car ownership) and ordinal variables (Income, Employment,...). My question is whether it is possible to construct latent variables using dichotomous ...
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How to interpret the coefficients for binomial reponse variables in SEM [R, lavaan]

I am learning SEM using the lavaan package in R. One of the response variables is binomial data (whether or not a participant answered the question accurately), ...