# Questions tagged [spatial]

The field of study concerning statistical methods that use space and spatial relationships (such as distance, area, volume, length, height, orientation, centrality and/or other spatial characteristics of data) directly in their mathematical computations.

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### My data is clustered in space, how can I account for that in a GAMM?

I am modelling whether a bird nest is build or not based on the date it was built, the geographical coordinates where the nest was built, and using the year when the nest was built as random effect - ...
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### Environmental filtering versus spatial resampling in species distribution modeling

I am building species distribution models using machine learning models based on GBIF data (presence-only data) and working on a very large spatial scale, encompassing all of North America. Before ...
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### EM-algorithm for spatial data

I am very new to Geostatistics (Modeling spatial data) and have some questions: 1- I found that in many literature, the spatial random field is divided into spatial bins. That is, suppose I am ...
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### State space models and Kalman Filter

I have the following model specification: $y_t = \mu_t + v_t,$ $\mu_{t+1|t} = \phi \, \mu_{t|t-1} + k\, v_t$ where v_t= y_t - mu_{t|t-1}, v_t|F_{t-1} ~ tv(0, sigma^2). I was asked to provide the ...
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### Unbiased Estimator of Nugget Effect

Question: I am trying the measure the nugget effect, which is parameterized by $(1-\lambda)$ in the following variance-covariance used to describe the multivariate normal distribution of my n-...
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### dubious diagnostics in species distribution modeling with mgcv gam

I am doing some marine species distribution modeling with gams and mgcv in R. The diagnostics from gam.check(), and concurvity() seem dubious. Are there issues with the specification of the model, or ...
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### How to compare multiple point patterns of the same realm resulting from different clustering methods?

I have a dataset of 500 sampling points to which I apply multiple different clustering methods for categorization. How can I compare the resulting spatial point patterns of cluster group labels? I ...
1 vote
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### Quantifying (observed) spatial clustering?

I am looking for some advice regarding spatial statistics. I have a large dataset with multiple samples across 5 different conditions. Each sample is composed of different point types in 2D space. For ...
1 vote
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### Derivative of Linear Model with respect to Residual

I am looking at two sections on the wikipedia page for total least squares, specifically: #Allowing_observation_errors_in_all_variables and #Example I have two questions, the first is how does one ...
1 vote
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### How to estimate a feasible Generalized Error-in-Variable Model (combine deming regression/TLS and f-generalized least squares)

I have observational data with spatial structure. A hypothetical dataset could be brain mass for 100 species of birds and body mass for those same species. The data has spatial structure because ...
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### GWR on spatially joined attributes

I am new here and am trying to build and compare a couple models using spatial data for estimation (GLM and GWR). I am trying to estimate counts using a training dataset that contains observations on ...
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### Data modelling as a surface

I want to model waste generation in a city using data from the containers. I have the location and fill levels of each container over time. My idea is to use the average amount of waste in each ...
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### How to know whether I should use DiD or Spatial RDD?

I'm quite new in econometrics. I want to study a nationwide policy change at the city-level. In year T-1, cities are divided in three zones (green, orange, red) depending on their tension on the ...
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### Using GAM for hotspot mapping

I’m going to preface this with, I’m no Generalized Additive Model or spatial statistics expert … I know enough to be “dangerous” … maybe that’s a bad thing 😉 Today I had a little bit of a thought ...
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### Smoothing spatial data for privacy issues

I have a dataset with about 6000 observations related to municipalities. The structure of the dataset includes four columns: the municipality code, the number of businesses in the municipality, the ...
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1 vote
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### Hierarchical clustering of a distance matrix with element weights

I am computing a hierarchical clustering of some geospatial data. I need to add in an element weighting to the approach. My current approach is: I compute temporal cross-correlations between my N ...
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1 vote
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### What is the name/terminology for this application of OLS regression

I don't come from a statistics background and was instructed to follow these steps to fill in missing data. I'm wondering if there is a name for this specific method so that I can learn more of it and ...
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### Forecasting a series that comes with uncertainty

I have a time series resulting from a spatiotemporal aggregation on the spatial domain. As a result, I have a central measurement (let's say mean average) and a dispersion (let's say standard ...
1 vote
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### Limit of Ripley's K function as r goes to infinity?

Considering the Ripley's K function as used in spatial point-process analysis, or the closely related L function, I am wondering what the limit of the function is as r approaches infinity. I am aware ...
1 vote
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### Joint Distribution Formulation of a Spatial X, Spatial Y, and Spatial Error Model

Introductory Problem: I have $n$ points in 3-D space, where I know their X and Y coordinates (not Z), and therefore the distances between points in those 2 dimensions. Each of the three dimensions has ...
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### Negative log likelihood cholesky decomposition

The code in question comes from Spatial Data Science by Pebesma and Bivand. I can pretty much understand what it says except for the last line. How does this give the negative log likelihood? I've ...
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1 vote
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### Out of sample testing Geographically Weighted Regression

I have spatial data on property prices and I've fitted a GWR, calibrated on all points. I haven't seen cross-validation or out-of-sample testing approaches applied to many GWR models in literature, Is ...
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### How to calculate AIC of a spatial panel model in R?

This may be a better question for Stack Overflow, but I think a statistics answer may be warranted here: I have built some spatial panel models in R using the ...
1 vote
50 views

### Sampling from a very high dimensional Gaussian

I would like to a sample from a Gaussian $N(0,K)$ where $K$ is a kernel gram matrix, so that $K=[K_{ij}]$ with $K_{ij} = k(x_i,x_j)$ for some positive definite function $k$. The first issue is that ...
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### Including location dummy variables in Geographically Weighted Regression

I am modelling house prices using individual observations of property sales (not polygon data). Does it make sense to include dummy variables for postcode areas as parameters in the GWR model?
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### NA results after pooling estimates and coeff of mixed effects cox model from MICE imputation dataset

I need your help with my problem. So, after step of imputation missing data through MICE method, I got multiple imputed dataset. Then, I pooled the estimates and coefficients with mixed effect cox ...
1 vote
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### How should I combine “typical” and “yesterday” self-reports?

I have inherited a long-running survey with two measures of individual behavior. Edits: clarifying that this is not about drinking behavior; it’s not, and I only used that to try and illustrate. It ...
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1 vote
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### Image Blur - Disc Kernel [closed]

I'm trying to use the blur() function from the spatstat package in R to blur an image. One ...
41 views

### Imputing missing observations of zip code level data

I am looking for a sufficient imputation method for missing observations in my zip code level data, using R. I have a random sample consisting of households which live in different zip codes within ...
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### Spatial autocorrelation weight matrix for heatmaps

I am not an advanced mathematician and I'm very new to spatial autocorrelation. So I apologize if my question seems primitive in any way. I'm looking for ways to quantify the distribution similarity ...
43 views

### Test statistic to assess the of spatial structure of clusters

I have a series of $n$ observations $i_{1},i_{2},..,i_{n}$, approximately spread across 10 different regions. Each $i$ has an associated $X$ and $Y$ coordinate value in 2-D Cartesian space. Each $i$ ...
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1 vote
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### Spatial autocorrelation of car crashes and traffic safety complaints in python

I am admittedly new to spatial autocorrelation and I did this research myself so apologies if this is completely noob behavior. I am trying to determine if there is a correlation between the location ...
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### Accounting for spatial dependence on 2D surface embedded in 3D using GAMs

I want to infer if a dependent variable (DV) can be predicted by several independent variables (IVs). Their relationship is non-linear and monotonic so I chose to use a GAM. Using the gam() function ...
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### How to test if a particular frequency is significant or not in a fourier frequency spectrum

I have got a timeseries data with which I plotted a frequency spectrum and I could eyeball all the significant peaks (significant frequencies) in the plot. But I want to do this for a spatial data (...
23 views

### What is the correct way to incorporate sampling weights into a spatial regression?

I want to know what the proper procedure is for incorporating sampling weights into a regression. I am running a spatial regression using survey data in R. I'm using the function ...
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### R joincount with non-integer counts

I am using the R function joincount.multi from spdep to look for spatial autocorrelation with my data. The joincount column is ...
25 views

### Calculate the correlation between two Space-Time Series

What method would be employed to calculate the correlation between two space-time series? For example, dataset 1 = a set of space-time points relating to cases of disease 1 and dataset 2 = a set of ...
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### How would you deal with sparse and scattered 2d data in a way that makes physical sense?

I am currently analyzing rainfall data which is in longitude/latitude/value format i.e. a 2d matrix. That is, I have a series of values x,y,z such that ...
1 vote
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### How to get plot of Ripley's K function (Kest) for temporal data in R? [closed]

I have the temporal data of Landslide events in CSV format. My data consists of Year, Month, and Day of events. I want to see if there is temporal clustering for events or not by using Ripley's K ...
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### Alternatives to Gaussian Process for spatial count data

I have some 1-D spatially distributed count data, and I'd like to model it as a function of a relatively smooth latent variable. I've managed to get a version of this to work using a Gaussian process ...
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### test fof relative global impact of latitude and altitude on a variable, should I account for spatial dependence?

I want to test for relative global impact of absolute latitude and altitude on a variable that ranges from 0 to 1 (six possible values). I have thousands of observations sampled across the world. I ...
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### How to model risk with presence-only data?

I'm working on a dataset of bird electrocutions. There are 300 instances of electrocuted birds and I have a range of environmental data that I want to input as my predictor variables. The aim is to ...
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### Combining location based probabilities from GPS data

I'm working with GPS data and have billions of GPS points stored in a DB. I'd like to be able to use this to create a class likelihood function that I can use somewhere else as as a visualisation or ...
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