# Questions tagged [spss]

IBM SPSS Statistics is a statistical software package. Use this tag for any on-topic question that (a) involves SPSS either as a critical part of the question or expected answer and (b) is not just about how to use SPSS.

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### Methods to compute factor scores, and what is the "score coefficient" matrix in PCA or factor analysis?

As per my understanding, in PCA based on correlations we get factor (= principal component in this instance) loadings which are nothing but the correlations between variables and factors. Now when I ...
61k views

### Doing principal component analysis or factor analysis on binary data

I have a dataset with a large number of Yes/No responses. Can I use principal components (PCA) or any other data reduction analyses (such as factor analysis) for this type of data? Please advise how I ...
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467k views

### When is R squared negative? [duplicate]

My understanding is that $R^2$ cannot be negative as it is the square of R. However I ran a simple linear regression in SPSS with a single independent variable and a dependent variable. My SPSS output ...
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### Is PCA followed by a rotation (such as varimax) still PCA?

I have tried to reproduce some research (using PCA) from SPSS in R. In my experience, principal() function from package psych ...
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### Best factor extraction methods in factor analysis

SPSS offers several methods of factor extraction: Principal components (which isn't factor analysis at all) Unweighted least squares Generalized least squares Maximum Likelihood Principal Axis Alpha ...
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### Why is "statistically significant" not enough?

I have completed my data analysis and got "statistically significant results" which is consistent with my hypothesis. However, a student in statistics told me this is a premature conclusion. Why? Is ...
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### Python as a statistics workbench

Lots of people use a main tool like Excel or another spreadsheet, SPSS, Stata, or R for their statistics needs. They might turn to some specific package for very special needs, but a lot of things can ...
14k views

### Interaction in generalized linear model

I have 2 continuous variables as my predictors and the interaction between them, so 3 effects all together (when I center my predictors only the interaction is significant). I am using a binary logit ...
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### Justification for low/high or tertiary splits in ANOVA

I have two groups of participants and they all took the same measurements. When I perform a median split on one of the measurements to test my hypothesis about an interaction, the dependent ...
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### How to handle with missing values in order to prepare data for feature selection with LASSO?

My situation: small sample size: 116 binary outcome variable long list of explanatory variables: 44 explanatory variables did not come from the top of my head; their choice was based on the ...
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### How do you estimate correlations between ordinal and binary data in SPSS?

I'm struggling with my lab report. I have a questionnaire which contains Likert responses (1-7) as well as questions that require only yes or no answers. I want to see if there is a correlation ...
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### Fisher's Exact Test in contingency tables larger than 2x2

I was taught to only apply Fisher's Exact Test in contingency tables that were 2x2. Questions: Did Fisher himself ever envision this test to be used in tables larger than 2x2 (I am aware of the tale ...
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### Hierarchical or TwoStep cluster analysis for binary data?

(This question is an edited version of a question I previously posted which one user recommended would benefit from more focus). I have 2000 questionnaires from respondents which ask 33 different ...
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### How to select a subset of variables from my original long list in order to perform logistic regression analysis?

My situation: small sample size: 116 binary outcome variable long list of explanatory variables: 44 explanatory variables did not come from the top of my head; their choice was based on the ...
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29k views

### Visualizing Likert responses using R or SPSS

I have 82 respondents in 2 groups (43 in Group A and 39 in Group B) that completed a survey of 65 Likert questions each ranging from 1 – 5 (strongly agree - strongly disagree). I therefore have a ...
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### Choice between Type-I, Type-II, or Type-III ANOVA [duplicate]

We have a dataset with three variables (dV: self-reported measure on scale 1-5, assumed to be metric; iV1: factor with 4 levels; iV2: factor with 8 levels). We are interested whether the dV differs in ...
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### Multiple imputation for missing values

I would like to use imputation for replacing missing values in my data set under certain constraints. For example, I'd like the imputed variable x1 to be greater ...
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### How to compare two time series?

I have collected temperature readings for 4 locations on a beach in Cornwall UK using data loggers. The loggers recorded temperature every 15 mins accurate to .1 of a degree (Celsius). The loggers ...
9k views

### Factor analysis for ordinal variables that have different categories

I have a data set that contains about 40 categorical variables that are taken as independent variables (and believed to be related to some unobservable human resource factors) and 4 categorical ...
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### Ways of comparing linear regression intercepts and slopes?

I'm a little bit confused about this, so any help would be appreciated! Let's say I have a repeated-measures design in which participants take part in a task where they have to rate the ...
22k views

### How to get pooled p-values on tests done in multiple imputed datasets?

Using Amelia in R, I obtained multiple imputed datasets. After that, I performed a repeated measures test in SPSS. Now, I want to pool test results. I know that I can use Rubin's rules (implemented ...
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### Comparing logistic regression coefficients across models?

I've developed a logit model to be applied to six different sets of cross-sectional data. What I'm trying to uncover is whether there are changes in the substantive effect of a given independent ...
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### Applying Rubin's rule for combining multiply imputed datasets

I am hoping to pool the results of a pretty basic set of analysis performed on a multiply imputed data (e.g. multiple regression, ANOVA). Multiple imputation and the analyses have been completed in ...
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### Non-normally distributed data - Box-Cox transformation?

I have data that is not normally distributed. The problem seems to be that there are too many of one value relative to other values. What I have tried to make data normal: I have tried a log ...
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### Why is ANOVA interaction no longer significant after including a covariate?

I have initially run a 2x2x2 Anova and found some significant interaction between the independent variables. I then ran a ANCOVA where I added a covariate. I am confused with how to interpret the ...
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### What's the relationship between initial eigenvalues and sums of squared loadings in factor analysis?

On the one hand I read in a comment here that: You can't speak of "eigenvalues" after rotation, even orthogonal rotation. Perhaps you mean sum of squared loadings for a principal component, ...
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### Categorical Principal Component Analysis - using Count, Continuous, Ordinal variables together

I have some variables and I want to reduce their number for further analysis. I initially thought of combining them using factor analysis. But since the variables are of all kinds (rating, count, ...
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### Difference between binomial, negative binomial and Poisson regression

I am looking for some information about the difference between binomial, negative binomial and Poisson regression and for which situations are these regression best fitted. Are there any tests I can ...
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### My distribution is normal; Kolmogorov-Smirnov test doesn't agree

I have a problem with the normality of some data I have: I've done a Kolmogorov test which says it isn't normal with p=.0000, I don't understand: the skewness of my distribution =-.497, and the ...
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### Can I use multiple regression when I have mixed categorical and continuous predictors?

It looks like you can use coding for one categorical variable, but I have two categorical and one continuous predictor variable. Can i use multiple regression for this in SPSS and if so how? thanks!
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### How to correctly treat multiple data points per each subject

I am currently arguing with someoe on how to correctly treat data with multiple measurements for each subject. In this case data was gathered for each subject within a short time for different ...
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### Understanding repeated measure ANOVA assumptions for correct interpretation of SPSS output

I am investigating whether different reward conditions may affect task performance. I have data from a small study with two groups, each with n=20. I collected data on a task that involved performance ...
127k views

### How to correlate ordinal and nominal variables in SPSS?

I have imported an Excel document in SPSS which contains around 500 entries. Three columns are defined, using Likert scales. I have substituted textual labels of these scales with numerical values ...
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### Multilevel MIXED Linear Regression with pseudo-repeats: Why designate "Repeated' variables, while "Subject ID" already identifies all repeats?

I am bewildered by multilevel mixed-models that have pseudo-repeats. I have difficulty understanding which variables should be considered REPEATED within a mixed-...
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### Bonferroni adjustment in SPSS - what does it do?

I'm probably being a bit simplistic here, but from what I understand the Bonferroni post hoc test is simply when we adjust the alpha to account for inflated error when several post hoc tests are ...
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### What data structure to use for my cluster analysis or what cluster analysis to use for my data?

I have a large dataset of categorical variables. The data consists of shoppers who purchased two items during a single trip to a store. There are approximately 75,000 cases and 1,500 different ...
1 vote
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### Why are SPSS and R producing different results for a cox regression on the same data, with the same model specification?

I've performed a cox regression in rstudio (version 1.0.136) using the coxph function in the package "OIsurv". I've also performed the same analysis on SPSS using the same dataset, but i keep on ...
32k views

### How to cluster time series?

I have a question about cluster analysis. There are 3000 companies, which have to be clustered according to their power usage over 5 years. Each company has values for every hour during 5 years. I ...
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### How to deal with non-binary categorical variables in logistic regression (SPSS)

I have to do binary logistic regression with a lot of independent variables. Most of them are binary, but a few of the categorical variables have more than two levels. What is the best way to deal ...
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### Displaying Ordinal Data - Means, Medians, and Mean Ranks

I have some ordinal data that is not normally distributed, so I decided to do non-parametric testing using the Mann-Whitney U Test. I am looking at differences between groups for seven scores - these ...
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### Is 0 a valid value in a Likert scale?

I have carried out my pilot study on language learning motivation using a 6 point Likert scale but from 0 (strongly disagree) to 5 (very much agree). I noticed a colleague in his survey used 1 to 6. ...
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### SPSS and Stata output different

I'm Stata-proficient but learning SPSS for my new position. I am using a simple dataset to do very basic regressions and comparing to see if the results are the same. They're not. I'm close, but the ...
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### How to do post-hoc tests with logistic regression?

I looked at whether participants recycled after being subjected to a given message. There were three groups: a Control group, group A, and group B. Since my dependent measure was dichotomous (...
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### What to do when assumptions are not met in a chi squared test?

I am doing an analysis on a “a priori segmentation”. In order to examine significant differences between the two segments crosstabs and the chi-square test were used. Type of variables: categorical ...
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### Weighted cases in a cluster analysis for cases in SPSS

I am conducting a cluster analysis (of cases) for a database which has weight attributed to the individual cases to ensure that it mirrors the general population in terms of sociodemographic ...
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### Correlation between vegetation and erosion

I am wanting to find the correlation between two variables: a categorical vegetation variable (with categories 1-4) and a continuous variable of erosion (with values anywhere between 0.2 and 9). I ...
28k views

### Should I treat these ordinal IVs as covariates or factors, in a regression?

I have a survey problem where the dependent variable (ordinal) is in Likert-type scale (i.e. 1 to 5 from most satisfied to most dissatisfied) and two sets of independent variables. One set has 7 IVs (...
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### Mann-Whitney U test with very large sample size?

I'm doing a Mann-Whitney U test to compare two very large samples (sample size 1 = 13250; samlple size 2 = 38871) originating from a raster image. I know t-tests are not recommended to compare rasters,...
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### How to identify outliers and conduct robust PCA?

I want to conduct a principal component analysis (PCA) in SPSS. One assumption for PCA is that there are no significant outliers. How can I identify outliers in SPSS?
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