# Questions tagged [spss]

IBM SPSS Statistics is a statistical software package. Use this tag for any on-topic question that (a) involves SPSS either as a critical part of the question or expected answer and (b) is not just about how to use SPSS.

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### Python as a statistics workbench

Lots of people use a main tool like Excel or another spreadsheet, SPSS, Stata, or R for their statistics needs. They might turn to some specific package for very special needs, but a lot of things can ...
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### When is R squared negative? [duplicate]

My understanding is that $R^2$ cannot be negative as it is the square of R. However I ran a simple linear regression in SPSS with a single independent variable and a dependent variable. My SPSS output ...
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### Is PCA followed by a rotation (such as varimax) still PCA?

I have tried to reproduce some research (using PCA) from SPSS in R. In my experience, principal() function from package psych ...
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### Why is "statistically significant" not enough?

I have completed my data analysis and got "statistically significant results" which is consistent with my hypothesis. However, a student in statistics told me this is a premature conclusion. Why? Is ...
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### Doing principal component analysis or factor analysis on binary data

I have a dataset with a large number of Yes/No responses. Can I use principal components (PCA) or any other data reduction analyses (such as factor analysis) for this type of data? Please advise how I ...
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### Difference between binomial, negative binomial and Poisson regression

I am looking for some information about the difference between binomial, negative binomial and Poisson regression and for which situations are these regression best fitted. Are there any tests I can ...
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### Best factor extraction methods in factor analysis

SPSS offers several methods of factor extraction: Principal components (which isn't factor analysis at all) Unweighted least squares Generalized least squares Maximum Likelihood Principal Axis Alpha ...
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### Fisher's Exact Test in contingency tables larger than 2x2

I was taught to only apply Fisher's Exact Test in contingency tables that were 2x2. Questions: Did Fisher himself ever envision this test to be used in tables larger than 2x2 (I am aware of the tale ...
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### Choice between Type-I, Type-II, or Type-III ANOVA [duplicate]

We have a dataset with three variables (dV: self-reported measure on scale 1-5, assumed to be metric; iV1: factor with 4 levels; iV2: factor with 8 levels). We are interested whether the dV differs in ...
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### Methods to compute factor scores, and what is the "score coefficient" matrix in PCA or factor analysis?

As per my understanding, in PCA based on correlations we get factor (= principal component in this instance) loadings which are nothing but the correlations between variables and factors. Now when I ...
25k views

### CHAID vs CRT (or CART)

I am running a decision tree classification using SPSS on a data set with around 20 predictors (categorical with few categories). CHAID (Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection) and CRT/CART (...
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### How to cluster time series?

I have a question about cluster analysis. There are 3000 companies, which have to be clustered according to their power usage over 5 years. Each company has values for every hour during 5 years. I ...
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### After bootstrapping regression analysis, all p-values are multiple of 0.001996

I'm running various multiple regression analyses in SPSS 27, and with those that are not bootstrapped, the p-values vary such that I do not find the same p-value twice within a regression (e.g., the p-...
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### Visualizing Likert responses using R or SPSS

I have 82 respondents in 2 groups (43 in Group A and 39 in Group B) that completed a survey of 65 Likert questions each ranging from 1 – 5 (strongly agree - strongly disagree). I therefore have a ...
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### Interpreting discrepancies between R and SPSS with exploratory factor analysis

I am a graduate student in computer science. I have been doing some exploratory factor analysis for a research project. My colleagues (who are leading the project) use SPSS, while I prefer to use R. ...
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27k views

### My distribution is normal; Kolmogorov-Smirnov test doesn't agree

I have a problem with the normality of some data I have: I've done a Kolmogorov test which says it isn't normal with p=.0000, I don't understand: the skewness of my distribution =-.497, and the ...
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### How to get pooled p-values on tests done in multiple imputed datasets?

Using Amelia in R, I obtained multiple imputed datasets. After that, I performed a repeated measures test in SPSS. Now, I want to pool test results. I know that I can use Rubin's rules (implemented ...
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### How to handle with missing values in order to prepare data for feature selection with LASSO?

My situation: small sample size: 116 binary outcome variable long list of explanatory variables: 44 explanatory variables did not come from the top of my head; their choice was based on the ...
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### How to deal with non-binary categorical variables in logistic regression (SPSS)

I have to do binary logistic regression with a lot of independent variables. Most of them are binary, but a few of the categorical variables have more than two levels. What is the best way to deal ...
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### Is there a standard measure of fit to validate Exploratory factor analysis?

I am modeling Exploratory Factor Analysis in R, Python, Mplus, and SPSS with maximum likelihood method and Varimax orthogonal rotation. However, each software gives different measures of fit and I am ...
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### Building a time series model using more than independent variables

I am working on a project, and I am totally new to statistics. I have sales data for last two years at week level, along with other variables like temperature, holiday (TRUE/FALSE), where holiday are ...
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### Very different results of principal component analysis in SPSS and Stata after rotation

For my PhD thesis I have to do a Principal Component Analysis (PCA). I didn't find it too difficult in Stata and was happy interpreting the results (I know there is a difference between factor and ...
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### What is the relation between singular correlation matrix and PCA?

Can anyone kindly give me some information about the statement (last sentence) at the end of below definition. What does it mean by "It can be used when a correlation matrix is singular"? This quote ...
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### How to test for normality in a 2x2 ANOVA?

Study Design: I showed participants some information about sea-level rise, focusing the information in different ways, both in terms of the time-scale and the magnitude of potential rise. Thus I had a ...
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### Multiple imputation questions for multiple regression in SPSS

I am currently running a multiple regression model using imputed data and have a few questions. Background: Using SPSS 18. My data appears to be MAR. Listwise deletion of cases leaves me with only ...
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### How do I test if regression slopes are statistically different?

I have a set of data that is composed of a measured parameter (dependent variable) as a function of time (independent variable), before and after an intervention event. I have calculated slope and ...
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### Internet statistics resources suitable for psychology students doing research

I am working on a new webpage for my part-time job as a methodological/statistical consultant for (psychology) students at my university. On this website I would like to place several links to online ...
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### Learning how to use a new statistical GUI?

The question is in the header, but I would extend the context a bit. Next semester I am due to be a teaching assistant (TA) in a course in statistics, where I would need to help sociology students ...
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### How to do post-hoc tests with logistic regression?

I looked at whether participants recycled after being subjected to a given message. There were three groups: a Control group, group A, and group B. Since my dependent measure was dichotomous (...
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### Justification for low/high or tertiary splits in ANOVA

I have two groups of participants and they all took the same measurements. When I perform a median split on one of the measurements to test my hypothesis about an interaction, the dependent ...
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I ran a non-parametric Friedman's test for my data in SPSS 22 and significantly rejected the null. That would mean that among the $k$ paired samples (3 in my case), there should be detected at least ...