Questions tagged [standardization]

Usually refers to "z-standardization" which is shifting and rescaling data to assure they have zero mean and unit variance. Other "standardizations" are possible, too.

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In linear regression, what would it do to center the label?

In this question linked below, it was addressed why we would center the features in linear regression. When conducting multiple regression, when should you center your predictor variables & when ...
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Questions on variables regarding multiple linear regression. Percentages and ratios + standardisation [on hold]

I am new to statistics and regression analysis. For our R class, we are required to perform linear regression. Dependent variable: P/E ratios of firms Independent variables: revenue growth (in %), ...
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Standardizing dummy variable in multiple linear regression?

I have a multiple linear regression model with several independent variables in different units. Because some of my data is negative, I am unable to take the log and therefore am standardizing the ...
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How to (and if) transform and standardize two types of data (count proportions & low-value inflated latencies) for a MRIM model

I am looking to analyse a variety of traits in a Multivariate random intercept model (MRIM) with the help of the MCMCglmm package in R. All traits are measured on different scales so I wish to ...
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Standardizing variables in lavaan (cross-lagged panel model)

I am running cross-lagged panel models with lavaan (3 time points, with and without random intercepts, as shown here https://jflournoy.github.io/2017/10/20/riclpm-lavaan-demo/ ). I noticed that when I ...
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Normalizing data before or after extracting time domain features

I have 100 time series (with 200 instances each) datasets each corresponding to a particular activity. I want to perform supervised classification for the activity. I want to use time domain (time-...
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Interactions: mean centering, standardizing and standardized coefficients (betas)

I mean-center my independent and moderator variable before calculating the interaction term to avoid multicollinearity. In my regression output table, I subsequently report the standardized ...
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Comparing z-scores, one variable pre-/post test

I am working on an assignment where I am going to compare a group of students test scores measured in a pre-test with the same group of students test scores measured in a post test. Due to the way ...
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Can I standardize/normalize proportion data using z-scores

I am trying to determine the temporal repeatability (repeatability over time) by conducting the same test on individuals twice. I then try to compare the results from these tests. I have a variety of ...
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Data normalization in ridge regression when there is no intercept

I would like to have a linear model without an intercept and also without the target being centered. How should my data then be normalized when using ridge regression? If I standardized the variables ...
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High Correlation after Standardization

I was working on a time series data, where there's a very low relationship between the variables(0.1 to -0.1). After applying standardization to each of the features, half of the it starts to bear ...
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How to interpret impulse response analysis in VAR when using standardized variables?

How to interpret impulse response analysis when using standardized variables (ie., subtracting the mean and divide by standard deviation) in vector autoregression analysis? The reason why I ...
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Quadratic term of standardized predictor in logistic regression

A random intercept logistic regression is performed to assess the association between $Y$: Disease (Yes/No) and Standardized Predictor($X_1$) adjusting for control variables ($X_2$, $X_3$) based on ...
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Why does AIC model rank order change in lme models with standardization of predictor variables?

I can't figure this out. The AIC/AICc rank of my mixed effect models are different whether or not I standardize my predictor values using rescale. Note, I'm not concerned that AICc is changing, as ...
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Do I scale panel data as a whole or do I group it first?

I am running a panel regression estimating the effect of a change in employee satisfaction for a given company on the stock price(adjusted by Fama-French). I do have a panel with 50 companies and 43 ...
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Confused about z-score image normalization output

I am trying to normalize my input data for a convolutional network, I applied the z-score normalization technique to my image dataset as follows: Formula: (image - mean(image)) / std(image) ...
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Chance&ceiling performance when using non-standardised hit&false-alarm rates

What is lost/missed out on if defining d', the sensitivity index from Signal Detection Theory, based on non-standardised rates? For example, Patel et al. 2008, for a task where normal and anomalous ...
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Interpretation of standardized (z-score rescaled) linear model coefficients

I have analyzed some data on vegetation change as a function of change in soil parameters. I compared a dataset from 2001 with a dataset from 2018 (fully balanced). To investigate the change in ...
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Standardizing versus percentile rank with survey data

I am currently working with survey data, collected across different locations, but with slightly different units of measurement. For example, on questions such as "What is your level of education", ...
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What is the proper way to standardize non-stationary data?

I have a 19-year time series of satellite imagery (spaced irregularly temporally). The mean and standard deviation of the dataset changes over the 19 years. I get multiple variables from each image; ...
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Variable selection with standardised variables

Recently I performed a lasso regression on a set of 1000 standardised time series variables to select variables to use in a linear regression model. I used the non-standardised original form of the ...
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How to standardize data with low variance?

I have quarterly data of federal fund rate (test set), e.g.: ...
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Standardization based on subsamples

I need to analyze data on the cognitive performance in a sample of participants divided into clinical (36 participants) and non-clinical groups (~100 participants). What would be the correct ...
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Standardised mean absolute error (SMAE) and how to calculate it?

I am using the mean absolute error mean(abs(obs - pred)) as one of the measures assessing the fit of my model. I would also like to have a standardised measure ...
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Z score standardisation vs min-max scaling for feature selection

I am applying l1 norm on the input weights of a single layer MLP. I wanted to know if I should standardize or min-max scale ([0 1] feature scaling) my input data?
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Construct least-squares ultrametric (hierarchical clustering) fits to doubly-standardized “flow” tables and compare to single-linkage-type fits

Figure 1 of the paper, "Hierarchical Migration Regions of France" (IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 4 (1976) 321-324) (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/...
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Standardization of Data

I have a dataset which consists of Sales for Product1 and Product2. It also tells if the <...
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Direct standardisation with missing values on ages

I am aiming to perform a direct standardisation to calculate the prevalence rate of a certain condition in an area. What I did was to merge different routinely collected health data to be able to ...
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Calculating ICC using z-scored standardized or unstandardized DV in Multilevel Linear Model?

I am doing multilevel linear modelling and I am calculating my ICC for my random intercept model. However, when I use the z-scored standardized DV (reaction time), the intercept and residual variance ...
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Should I standardize all variables before a PCA separately if some share the same units

I have a matrix that contains >2000 variables which can be divided in 4 groups of ~500 variables with each group having a distinct unit. I need to standardize the matrix before running a PCA, but when ...
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Group mean&SD with respect to which z-scores are computed

I have a research report that gives the standardised test scores from a number of subjects. However, it is not specified with respect to which group the z-scoring was made. Thus, for each subject ...
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Questions about standard error

We are trying to create a table of standardised effects and standardised errors to compute for a meta-analysis. And I had a few questions around this Can you get a standard error for pearson ...
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Un-standardize feature weights

I have a linear regression model $y_a = \theta_a^T\tilde{f}$, where $\theta_a$ is a vector of learned feature weights and $\tilde{f}$ is my standardised feature vector; $$ \tilde{f} = \frac{f - \mu}{\...
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Why z-score/standard score is a linear transformation

Can someone please help me understand why the standard score $(X - \mu)/\sigma$ is a linear transformation since both mean and standard deviation depend on X?
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Centering / standardizing leads to very different results for GLM (logistic, poisson, negative binomial distribution)

I have a dataset with count data and around 1 million observations. My regressions contain around 40 variables (binary and continuous) and 10 thousand fixed effects. I analyze this dataset with linear,...
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What is the reasoning behind standardization (dividing by standard deviation)?

Why does dividing a dataset by sigma make the sample variance equal to 1? Assuming a zero mean for simplicity. What's the intuition behind this? Dividing by the range (max-min) makes intuitive sense....
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MIMIC Model and standardization

I'm running a MIMIC model in MPlus with a dummy coded covariates and binary manifest variables. Which standardization should I use to calculate the ETS effect size for DIF, std, stdy, or stdyx?
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How to perform feature scaling on noise removel process?

i'm working on dataset contain machinery sensor data. each column(feature) represent different sensor data(pressure, temperature, speed, etc) of the machine part. here task is to predict normal ...
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how does Keras ImageDataGenerator standardize data?

If I understand correctly the ImageDataGenerator class is a generator and returns batches of images when called, but what I don't seem to understand is: featurewise_center ...
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What is the relationship between the standardized multiple regression coefficient & the semi partial correlation for models with k>2 predictors?

I have found myself Googling this question more than once: ¿What is the relationship between the standardized multiple regression coefficient (the standardized partial slope) and the corresponding ...
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z-score of one variable, but for two groups

I need to transform the score of a variable to z-scores, because of two different scales that were used according to the subjects' age. However, there are two groups: control and diseased. Do I ...
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Data normalization for recommender system

Does anyone know whether it's a good idea to standardize your data by replacing it with the percentile which it occupies in a distribution? Instead of substracting the mean and dividing by standard ...
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Why are standardised coefficients from STB not equivalent to standardised input data?

I recently saw a question on cross-validated which I wanted to double-check. The statement said that the following two outputs should be equal: Running a multivariate regression on non-standardised ...
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Sample Mean expressed using Standard Normal Distribution

Let $\bar{X}_n = X_1 + \dots X_n$ where $X_i \sim N(0,1)$. We can easily verify that $\bar{X}_n \sim N(0, 1/n)$. Thus $\text{Var}(\bar{X}_n) = 1/n$. Let the density of $X \sim N(0,1)$ be denoted $\...
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Facilitating Comparisons - 1 SD difference

I came across a paper that mentions this in their statistical analysis: To facilitate comparisons among variables, the hazard rate ratio (HRR) was calculated for a 1-SD difference for each of the ...
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k-means and (re?) standardisation of a sub-set

I have data which is customer purchases of items in each of three months: I have summed the data over the three months for each customer; calculated the proportion of purchases that each item ...
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Multiple regression of variables with different units

I'm new in statistical modelling and using R, so please excuse my mistake for this question. I want to make multiple regression model with these variables: Revenue (in million USD) as dependent ...
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Setting standard deviation to 1 in PCA

I was going through Introduction to Statistical Learning in R, Seventh Printing, and I have a question about Principal Components Analysis. If the first principal component is measured as the ...
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Can standardized variable be used to generalize sample results to whole population?

I have a dependent variable(wage), and two variables, that are correlated to wage (country and ...
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$L_2$ norm of product of two vectors

Let's assume we have two matrices $A^{d\times 1}$ and $B^{1 \times e}$, and we define their product as $C^{d\times e}$. Assuming $A,B$ are real valued with all entries in $[-1,1]$. I can intuitively ...