# Questions tagged [structural-equation-modeling]

Structural Equation Modeling is a multivariate technique. It is based on formulating a set of linear relations between variables, some of which may be latent, and estimating the whole system, typically by analyzing the covariance matrix of the observed variables.

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### Fixed weights to 1 in confirmatory factor analysis - how significance (p) value is obtained?

I have a question somewhat related to this thread. I now understand why the value of 1 should be fixed in the confirmatory analysis to one of paths, and I also understand that various tricks can be ...
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### Negative covariance matrix in RI CLPM (lavaan)

I am currently struggling to solve the problem of negative covariance regarding the latent variables with respect to the random intercepts in my RI CLPM model, which I calculate via lavaan. Here is my ...
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### Lavaan Estimator

I did a three-wave study with repeated measured for each wave.I have two questions: I am doing a CFA for a configural model (testing temporal invariance for each variable of my model at 3 points in ...
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### Residual variance in SEM

In structural equation modeling, in a path diagram, the sum of the squares of the estimates (when in standardized units), and the residual variance should sum to 1. (As in here) Consider the plot ...
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### Direction of Effects Switching Between Multiverse Analysis and SEM

I'm running an analysis looking at macro-predictors of some different processes. Because the macro predictors (higher levels stuff like average years of education, labor force participation, GDP, etc.)...
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### When the direction of causation can plausiblely run in either direction, is there a good stat approach to distinguishing relative strength?

I am interested in an instance where it is plausible that ideology influences economic outcome, and also that economic outcomes influence ideology. Assuming that I have good and relavent measures of ...
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### Queries on structural equation model

Can the outcome / dependent variable be made of only one or two items? Can I merge different scale items say a 5 point & a 7 point likert into a single latent construct? Also I have a behavioral ...
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### Should I use raw score or z-score for CFA?

I am running confirmatory factor analyses and my variables have different scales. I wonder whether I should use raw score and report factor loadings of std.all ...
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### Handling Composite Variables in Latent Class Analysis

I am working with secondary survey data that includes 13 dichotomous variables. According to my theoretical model, I need to group these variables into composite variables. However, I understand that ...
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### Hypothesis Test Finite Sample Spatial Gaussian Mixture Model

I have $n$ observations of pairs $(x, y)$ and three different models I would like to compare. Model0 is nested within Model1. Model0 is also nested within Model2. I would like to do hypothesis ...
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### What if path c’ has a negative coefficient, but X - > Y share a moderate to high Spearman correlation?

I am running a mediation model including the variables $X$, $M$, and $Y$. The Spearman correlation between $X$ and $Y$ is +0.4, while the direct path ...
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### Measurement invariance across groups and time

I want to run a multi-group longitudinal model. Based on prior invariance testing, I can assume scalar invariance across groups and time. So is it appropriate to have both the same intercepts across ...
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### CFA Measurement Invariance - can weak invariance be significant with the configural but not strong invariance? [closed]

I am a newbie here. I searched through the forum but did not find similar questions, so I hope someone who is proficient with SEM / lavaan can help out. I am using R lavaan and semTools to perform ...
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### How to translate hierarchical linear model random effects into SEM path diagram?

I've been struggling with translating random slope and intercept and random variables and understanding them as latent variables in the pursuit of path models. For example here is a random slope and ...
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### Implementing a SEM with lasso regression [closed]

I have the following structural equation model (SEM) structure in mind: In reality there are more than 3,2, resp. 3 variables, so I want to use lasso regression for the arrows. Is it possible to ...
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### What does it mean when a CFA model improves drastically by ommiting a factor?

I am trying to fit a CFA model with four factors (say F1 with 4 indicators, F2 with 6 indicators, F3 with 3 indicators and F4 with 5 indicators) in Amos. Each indicator is computed by summation of ...
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### Unpaarametered Mediation paths SEM with same degree of freedom comparison

I am modelling multilevel mediation paths for my data. The idea is that a1,a2,b1, b2, c1, c2,d1,d2 all contribute to outcome variable y, and b-level, c-level, and d-level variables also affect y ...
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### Proportion mediated possible for Binary outcome, Continuous mediator?

I am running a mediation analysis on a categorical X (race/ethnicity), binary Y (disease status), and ordinal M (can be any integer 0 - 10). N-controls = 1321. Ncases = 384. I conducted this analysis ...
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### SEM with 50% missing data (due to distribution of items over various survey ballots/waves)

I want to test a multilevel mediation (particularly, test a number of hypotheses about possible mediators of the effect of social class on Right-Wing Authoritarianism) using largely categorical ...
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### Stable violation of faithfulness

Faithfulness is often justified by the argument that any violations of it require very specific "fine-tuned" parameters (for some appropriate SCMs/SEMs/SFMs), and that such violations are ...
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### Reporting results for time-invariant predictors in latent growth curve models

I am results for reporting a time invariant predictor of the intercept and slope factors within a latent growth model, adjusted for covariates such as age and sex. My dependent variables and ...
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### Comparing regression coefficients across non-nested SEM models (Lavaan)

I had question about SEM in Lavaan which I cannot seem to get a grip on through any google forums or my old lecture slides... I wish to explain cognition using several variables (CR1/CR2, which stand ...
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### What sample size should be reported when using pairwise deletion approach with WLSMV?

I have a question regarding reporting the sample size in an article. The situation is a bit complex, so please allow me to explain below: I collected data from participants via an online survey. ...
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### Mediation: only c path and b path are significant?

I have done a mediation analysis in which nature contact is the independent variable, worrying is the mediator and depressive symptoms the dependent variable. I performed a mediation via PROCESS. The ...
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### Structural equation modeling identification question

Could someone please assist me in identifying whether my model is underidentified, just identified, or overidentified based on the post-estimation results of my Structural Equation Modeling? I have 16 ...
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### How to analyze a dichotomous outcome with 50% missing data?

I am researching predictors of dropout from a training program. I want so to see if personality traits add incremental variance above well-established predictors like age, fitness, and education. So, ...
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### moderated mediation vs mediated moderation

I am looking for a detailed explanation of moderated mediation and mediated moderation. My basic understanding is that in moderated mediation, we have a classical mediation model with the addition of ...
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### How do I interpret a second-order multi-variate growth model?

I am running a multi-variate second order growth model. I have two factors, which are conceptually related to each other measured on 7 different occasions. Wanting to know how the two factors ...
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