# Questions tagged [survey-sampling]

Creating samples from a well-specified population (human: all adults; registered voters; individuals with diabetes; students of a university; establishment: all firms; firms with employment of 200 or more in New York City; resource: all land of a country or a state/province) using a probabilistic method, with the purpose of inference to that specific population

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### Proper Difference-in-Difference Model for Time Variant Groups

Take the following example... I have two areas: Area A and Area B. Area A are individuals in a geographic area who are exposed to a health intervention. The health intervention is applied to the ...
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### Combining Survey Weights

I have an annual survey that is somewhat complex in design. Sample frames are pulled quarterly and overlap. Each quarter's sample is removed from the subsequent quarter's frame. Samples are stratified ...
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### Can you build up statistical validity with multiple month's worth of the same survey questions?

The company I work for conduct consulting where we analyse company survey responses for statistical validity against the general company population. To prevent survey fatigue, the company sends out ...
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### Sample size for survey

My interest is to perform a statistically significant survey on a population of 1700 people, that can be described in different categories, so each person belongs to only one category. I have two ...
1 vote
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### Multi-level Model and Multi-level Data

I have a question about multi-level models with multi-level survey data. I am working with survey data that has a two-stage sampling design with primary sampling units defined as schools randomly ...
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### Statistical Non-Response and Drop Out

In statistical studies, it is possible that there might be biases: Someone groups of people are more likely to be represented compared to others groups of people (e.g. poorer people have difficult ...
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### Studying more than one sampling unit in a single randomization

So we have a list of organizations that dedicate themselves to a certain social service. Our goal is to ask both laborers and customers an overlapping(but not fully) set of questions for each one of ...
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### Is naive mean estimator uniformly worse than HT (IPW) or Hajek estimators in survey sampling? If not, why is it less discussed in the literature?

Consider a toy example: we are interested in the average height of $n$ students $\bar{\tau}=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n\tau_i$, but for some reason, we can only access a random subset $S$ of it. Every ...
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### Sample a random subgraph from an undirected, unweighted graph, what's the probability of "every two nodes's distance is at least 3 in the subgraph"?

This may be a problem in sampling theory or graph theory. I have done many research but I still didn't find valid solutions. I know a simple random sample is representative of the population. Now I ...
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### Use calibration weights to correct for unit non-response bias?

I have a question about how calibration weights can be used to sufficiently correct for unit non-response bias. Suppose the sample is s and the response set is r. Calibration is applied to the ...
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### In stratified sampling, why is the stratum population variance obtained by dividing by 1 less than the stratum size

I am aware that flavors of this question get asked a lot, for e.g., here. I am fine with the sample variance being divided by $n-1$ and that is what makes it an unbiased estimator of the population ...
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### What weight to use for using NAMCS and NHAMCS together?

I am interested in analyzing the total prescription of aspirin in NAMCS and NHAMCS (https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/ahcd/index.htm) during a given year for all visits. NAMCS and NHAMCS each had a weight and ...
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### Reliability of online surveys

I'm trying to get an idea about reliability of online surveys: I found some indication that "internet-based surveys produce data that is at least as reliable, valid, and of equal quality as data ...
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### Sampling inquiry for thesis [closed]

I have a mixed-method thesis ongoing and I plan collecting data on my own college (namely college X), specifically from students and faculty members on my department. Evidently, that would be ...
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### comparing two samples drawn using two different sampling methods

This is a hypothetical question, so I don't have a lot of additional details to give. However my question is pretty straightforward: Is it theoretically valid to conduct tests (e.g. for comparing ...
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### Can I add a variable to a complex sample, and run a regression?

In a survey, a complex sample was collected, and the sample was designed to provide estimates at national level. In other words, individuals from one state were more likely to be sampled due to ...
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### Adjusting the sampling probability during sampling

Let $n$ individuals in a statistical population be identified by $p.id \in \{1, 2, ..., n\}$ where the order is randomised. Assume, for simplicity, that all individuals are included in the sampling ...
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### Measuring the reliability of a survey data

I have a survey data and I applied KR20 on it. The KR20 score is 0.63 which means this survey result is not consistent and reliable, at least not in a reliable range with the definition of a reliable ...
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### Effective sample size when the estimated proportion is zero

In order to estimate the proportion of fradulent invoices, we did a two-stage probability weighted sample. A subset $m$ out of $M$ departments were chosen in the first stage, and $n_m$ invoices were ...
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### Sampling error for proportion with finite population - which correction to use?

I am trying to calculate sampling error for a questionnaire that was answered by some of the participants in a program (say about . I want to calculate the sampling error for the proportion of the ...
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### How to treat age-eligibility thresholds in household surveys (e.g. HRS)?

Most household surveys have age-eligibility thresholds. The HRS interviews individuals aged 51 and older, plus their spouse (if any) using PPS sampling. Do I need to drop individuals who are younger ...
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### Unbiased estimate of mean test score of pupils in a country (sampling frame of schools is avaible only)

My primary goal is to get unbiased estimate of mean test score of every pupil in a country. I have no sampling frame of all pupils to randomly sample from. But I have a sampling frame for every school....
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### When to use replicate weights in complex survey analysis

I am curious about when it is recommended to use replicate weights in survey analysis. I compared the usual survey analysis with using replicate weights, as illustrated below. Based on the paper "...
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### Study changes of association between an independent variable and a categorical outcome with more than 2 categories

Suppose I would like to study the association between sex (male and female; independent variable) and taste preference (sweet, bitter, and sour; dependent variable). I have three cross-sectional ...
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### Different ways to define survey design object under MCAR assumption

I have a stratified random sample, and would like to conduct complete-case analysis, assuming Missing Completely At Random. However, I find that there seem to be two ways to define survey design ...
1 vote
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### Is it reasonable to subset a survey design object by dependent (outcome) variable and fit a weighted logistic regression model?

I would like to study which factors are associated with an outcome which has more than two categories. After considering multinomial logistic regression model (which I find is very challenging to ...
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### Longitudinal sample with varying levels of non-response

I'm using answers to a specific question from the General Social Survey ("do you feel rushed"?) to compare statistics over multiple years. The answers are "Always" "Sometimes&...
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### What is the difference between a repeated cross-sectional survey design and a trend survey design?

Most of the references I have checked for repeated cross-sectional design and trend design (a type of longitudinal design) have said that they are one and the same. However, my professor says that ...
1 vote
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### Domain (subgroup) estimation in a stratified random sample

I want to ask a question about domain estimation (i.e., estimation of a parameter among subpopulations) in a stratified random sample. It seems to me that in a stratified random sample, domain ...
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### How can I reweight survey data

I have survey data from a complex survey with stratification, weights and clustering. I'm using the survey package in R to run regressions: ...
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### Cluster sampling result in larger sample-to-sample variability

I'm reading STATA's Survey Data Reference Manual. There is written that: Cluster sampling typically results in larger sample-to-sample variability than sampling individuals directly. Do you have an ...
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### Can I make a proportional-to-size without replacement sample (PPS WOR) self weighted?

Let's say I have 100 schools and each has a different number of students. I want to estimate which % of students are in schools with electricity. Simulation and theory indicate it is more efficient to ...
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### Appropriate way to use post-stratification weights when running statistical tests SPSS

I have used Complex Samples in SPSS (and SUDAAN in SAS, Survey in R) when working with survey data that were collected using a sampling design that was not random. For example, when an oversample was ...
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### Small Area Estimation techniques when no micro information is available

Small area estimation (SAE) techniques combine information from household surveys with existing auxiliary information at population level to make inferences of certain indicators for population groups ...
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### Who created the "soup analogy" for sampling

The soup analogy is, You only need a single spoon to sample the soup, provided it is well stirred. It has been used several times here Sampling distributions of sample means and What is your ...
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### What are the differences and common points, if any, between oversampling as a survey design method and oversampling in a machine learning context?

I've seen the term "oversampling" used in a survey design methodology context and in a machine learning context (e.g. methods like SMOTE). I'm intrigued by the differences between the two. ...
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### Question concerning svydesign and svyglm in R

I have a complicated data set which was made by a multistage stratified cluster design. I had originally analysed this using glm, however now realise that I have to use svyglm. I'm not quite sure ...
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### Definition of rotated panel sampling

I am doing exercises and I come across a question that asks me to describe sampling with rotated panel. What does rotated panel sampling mean?
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### Can I CUT a sample to become representative?

Suppose that, from a finite population, we estimated the minimum sample size as 1000 to reach our desired confidence level and error. Data was collected using an online survey and the survey remained ...
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### Is it appropriate to pre-stratify and post-stratify along different delineations of the same variables in a single survey?

I am working in the context of opt-in, web-based surveys. Often the desire is for accurate population estimates, and often at a country-wide level. The standard approach at this organization is to ...
1 vote
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### How can I show probability of selection change when adding stratification to a survey design

I have a survey that uses a stratified sampling approach with optimal allocation. The team conducting the survey has asked that we make two changes: Subdivide one of the strata into smaller pieces. ...
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### Survey with two simple random samples without repetition

I have an particular exercise of sampling survey, or sampling theory, which I report below. One is interested in knowing the price per gram of gold produced by 100 companies. A monthly survey of a ...
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### Population bias in survey leading to inaction

This isn’t exactly an academic statistics question, but it is a real problem that I’m trying to understand with regards to bias in survey statistics leading to issues in real-world decision making. I’...
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### Is post-stratification inherently non-Bayesian?

It is increasingly common to employ regression with post-stratification. Since probability-weighting is incoherent in Bayesian inference (thus why sampling/survey weights and weighted psuedo-...
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### (i.i.d) Random sampling assumption in practical situations

This is a practical question. Assume that there are two finite populations X and Y in the real world. For example, we want to compare $\bar{X}$ and $\bar{Y}$. We can use a probability sampling scheme ...
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