# Questions tagged [temporal-difference]

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### How can I quantify temporal variation into a single value without losing magnitude?

For my ecological research on the impacts of intensity of space-use on vegetation structure I need to quantify temporal variation in the intensity of space-use across years (resulting in a single ...
27 views

### Modeling Temporal-Interval Distance

I'm trying to define a model for comparing temporal intervals, and can't find an appropriate distance function that incorporates the different relations two temporal intervals might have, e.g. overlap,...
30 views

### Stationarizing Time-Series

This is a general question about stationary time series. Consider a time-series t with frequency k (e.g., 52 for weekly data). If this time series was non-stationary such that a single difference (i.e....
1 vote
102 views

### Why is least squares temporal difference (LSTD) method more sample efficient compared to Temporal difference (TD) for value function approximation

I am trying to understand how LSTD works in value function approximation. I am reading the preliminaries of this paper. I sort of understand how the LSTD method differs from TD learning. In TD ...
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783 views

### What is temporal leakage?

So I've been trying to work out exactly what temporal leakage is for a while now and I'm getting nowhere. I'm not necessarily looking to code or anything, I'm more so interested in what it actually is ...
355 views

### How to normalise changes that occur over time spans of different duration?

I want to compare changes in a variable that occur over time spans of different duration. Here is a hypothetical example: Precipitation in Region A decreased by 300 mm (from 1000 mm to 700 mm) over a ...
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312 views

### How to define number of states in reinforcement learning

I'm a robotic engineer who's relatively new to reinforcement learning and I want to try to do simple reinforcement learning on a robot to optimize its velocity. I am however having trouble with ...
• 21
468 views

### Why is temporal difference learning biased in reinforcement learning?

When I learn reinforcement learning from David Silver's online video, I saw "the objective of TD learning, $r_t + \gamma V(s_{t+1})$ is a biased target for learning value function. " I know the ...
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1 vote
50 views

### How to analyse temporal variation in R---vigilance of birds

I am currently doing a project for my Bachelor degree, for which I study vigilance in birds. Obviously, I have to analyse the data statistically. However, I do not know where to begin since I do not ...
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