# Questions tagged [terminology]

Usage and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

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### Is there a name for the likelihood of the most likely outcome?

In pop statistics, it's common to state what the most likely outcome is as if that is a very meaningful attribute. But without knowing how likely the most likely outcome is, it isn't really so highly ...
857 views

### Rule of Thumb meaning in statistics

I was wondering what the term "rule of thumb" actually means in statistics. Why did they select this name, for example, for sample size calculation? Is it like an approximation based on ...
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### What do people in machine learning typically mean when they talk about something being ill conditioned?

RIght now I am reading a paper which deals with some optimization methods for machine learning and the author explains how some of the methods "deal with ill conditioning". I know the term ...
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### Term for non-structural-zero part of a zero-inflated model

One way to describe a a zero-inflated random variable $Y$ is $Z \times Y'$ where $Y'$ is some discrete random variable and $Z \sim \text{Bernoulli}(\psi)$, for some $\psi \in [0,1].$ My question is: ...
1 vote
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### Outcome vs. elementary event, which of them is assigned a probability?

A previous question here asked about the difference between "outcomes" and "elementary events". The answer was that An event is some subset of the sample space. One possible event ...
32 views

### What are the "tricks" in machine learning? [closed]

I have come across a few different "tricks" in machine learning methodology, which I list below along with my rudimental understandings. The Kernel Trick: This is used in Support Vector ...
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### What do people call such a chart with a strip of activity types per time?

What do people call a chart like that below which has days on Y axis and time of the day on X axis while color represents a kind of activity (data gathering, processing, etc.)? It is very close to ...
765 views

### What do people call a chart with a strip of peak values in time intervals?

What do people call a chart like one below which has days on Y axis and time of the day on X axis while color represents the level of some value (for example, loading, usage count, etc.)? The chart ...
80 views

### When authors write "model of the data" is this a shorthand for "model of the data generating process" [duplicate]

Some authors, such as Barber in Bayesian Reasoning and Machine Learning and Rasmussen & Williams in Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning, write phrases such as "model of the data" and ...
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991 views

### Is it incorrect terminology to say "confidence interval of a random variable"?

I have seen claims that "population paramter is not a random variable" when discussing confidence intervals. eg here Be sure to note that the population parameter is not a random variable. ...
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### What is it called when two variables causally affect one another?

Suppose two variables X1 and X2 are correlated and we know that X1 causes X2 and X2 causes X1. For example, leg strength and an interest in cycling interest might be correlated. And (suppose) we know ...
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### Terminology clarification about sample moments

According to MathWorld (link): "The sample raw moments are unbiased estimators of the population raw moments". While in Wikipedia (link) it is said: ...the $k$-th raw moment of a population ...
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### Why was the term "significance" ($\alpha$) chosen for the probability of Type I error?

I'm currently studying "Statistics 1" as part of my Computer Science degree, and I'm having trouble understanding the concept of "significance." We were provided with the following ...
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1 vote
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### What is the name/terminology for this application of OLS regression

I don't come from a statistics background and was instructed to follow these steps to fill in missing data. I'm wondering if there is a name for this specific method so that I can learn more of it and ...
3k views

### What kind of chart is this and how to read it?

I came across this chart that is both weird and intriguing. It is about some literary works produced in the regions mentioned. The x axis is the time and y axis the percentage. The preceding para has ...
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### Given variable A and B containing data of lemma sentiments, what is the correct term for the variable containing average of var A and var B?

I have a data visualization, showing the sentiment of two lemmas "гей" (var a) and "трансгендер" (var b) in a news corpus throughout the year. Here is the dataframe sample of my ...
85 views

### what is null hypothesis in a simple term? [duplicate]

I am new here, reading a lot what null hypothesis is but not quite get clear picture. Could someone give me a simple explanatation or example please.
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### What is a limited estimator?

I'm reading this paper where, on pp 3 of the pdf, the authors write (emphasis added): "As the fitted two-component model is a limited estimator to classify bound/unbound sites, we additionally ...
961 views

### Deviation between Mean and Median

If I have a mean of 15 and median of 10, is there a term for the difference between these? Can you use this difference of 5 for anything valuable statistically?
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### What's the difference between Mediators, Co-Variates, Moderators and Confounders terms?

I was wondering if someone could shed some light on the difference between the above-mentioned terms since I see them used frequently in many research publications I've read. If I have an outcome ...
89 views

### Background reason for the terms ‘Isotropic’ and ‘Anisotropic’ in the context of GNN Message Passing

I’m reading a paper on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) that uses the terms ‘isotropic’ and ‘anisotropic’ in the context of message passing. I understand that these terms originate from physics, chemistry,...
147 views

### Error rate vs Empirical risk - What's the difference between practical and theoretical terms for performance of neural networks?

Motivation I am currently reading the following book: Understanding machine learning by Shalev-Shwartz and Ben-David. The book uses statistics terminology in its machine learning theory, and it is not ...
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### What is this method name for comparing two financial time series by their difference (subtraction)?

I am trying to find a reference/name for what I am doing for explaining it in an academic work. My scenario is that: I have financial time-series A and B. I want to answer if A outperforms B or vice-...
2k views

### What is the statistics term for exact value that occurs in otherwise continous distribution?

For some continuous quantities (e.g. daily rainfall at a certain location), there is one exact value that occurs often (in the case of daily rainfall that's the value of zero: there are days on which ...
40 views

### Terminology: multivariable when multiple levels of categorical variable?

Oftentimes, one sees people use terms such as univariate and multivariate logistic regression, where they clearly refer to number of predictors rather than number of response variables. I know it ...
1 vote
43 views

### Is a database either a population or sample population? [closed]

I am writing a paper, and I hit a singular obstacle. What are databases in statistics nomenclature? How do we call databases in statistics vernacular? Populations or sample population or databases or ...
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### Bias-variance trade-off for a specific fitted model vs. a class of models: terminology

Consider a data generating process $$Y=f(X)+\varepsilon$$ where $\varepsilon$ is independent of $x$ with $\mathbb E(\varepsilon)=0$ and $\text{Var}(\varepsilon)=\sigma^2_\varepsilon$. According to ...
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### Sample notation: When to use capital $N$ vs lowercase $n$?

In statistics and psychological research, what is denoted by capital $N$ vs lowercase $n$? I work in psychological research and I've seen them used in two ways: Capital $N$ represents the entirety of ...
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### Mean-parameterizable models that have invariant concentration functions, but that aren't translation-invariant?

Definitions: Sorry for the ad hoc terminology -- comments or answers that provide pointers to standard terminology would be much appreciated. For simplicity I'd like to restrict discussion to real-...
233 views

### Hierarchy principle: who defined it first?

Different questions here deal with the problem of whether to include main effects in interaction models, for example here, here and here (for the opposite problem, omitting interaction coefficients ...
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### Apriori Algorithm confusion: difference between frequency and support

What is the correct way to calculate support? I have seen two different ways and I'm confused as a result. One way (say first approach) is explained https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
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### Origin of the term "spherical" in relation to covariance matrices?

I understand that a covariance matrix with all diagonal elements equal, and all off-diagonal elements also equal (but different to the diagonal elements) is called "spherical". I am curious ...
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### Clarification about the terminology of Hypothesis testing

I have a Hypothesis $H_0:$ A person has Corona, $H_1$: The person does not have corona. I know that \begin{aligned} \alpha &= \mathbb{P}_{\theta_0}(X\in \text{Reject H}_0), \\ 1-\beta &= \...
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1 vote
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### How is the name of an effect size chosen?

The wikipedia page about effect sizes lists many effect sizes ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effect_size). Obviously, it's often the case that names are partly constructed by the name of the person ...
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### What is the correct way to refer to the Likelihood $L(\theta, \alpha | X)$ where $\theta$ and $\alpha$ are parameters?

I am currently studying some latent variable models. In many works, I found the following equation: $L( \theta, \boldsymbol\pi | x ) = \sum_{c=1}^{C} f(x| \theta, \alpha = \alpha_c) \cdot \pi_c$ where ...