Skip to main content

Questions tagged [terminology]

Usage and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
8 votes
2 answers
551 views

Is there a name for the likelihood of the most likely outcome?

In pop statistics, it's common to state what the most likely outcome is as if that is a very meaningful attribute. But without knowing how likely the most likely outcome is, it isn't really so highly ...
Ray Butterworth's user avatar
5 votes
3 answers
857 views

Rule of Thumb meaning in statistics

I was wondering what the term "rule of thumb" actually means in statistics. Why did they select this name, for example, for sample size calculation? Is it like an approximation based on ...
user413503's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
28 views

What do people in machine learning typically mean when they talk about something being ill conditioned?

RIght now I am reading a paper which deals with some optimization methods for machine learning and the author explains how some of the methods "deal with ill conditioning". I know the term ...
Sen90's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
0 answers
12 views

Term for non-structural-zero part of a zero-inflated model

One way to describe a a zero-inflated random variable $Y$ is $Z \times Y'$ where $Y'$ is some discrete random variable and $Z \sim \text{Bernoulli}(\psi)$, for some $\psi \in [0,1].$ My question is: ...
Noppawee Apichonpongpan's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
34 views

Outcome vs. elementary event, which of them is assigned a probability?

A previous question here asked about the difference between "outcomes" and "elementary events". The answer was that An event is some subset of the sample space. One possible event ...
invalid syntax's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
32 views

What are the "tricks" in machine learning? [closed]

I have come across a few different "tricks" in machine learning methodology, which I list below along with my rudimental understandings. The Kernel Trick: This is used in Support Vector ...
camhsdoc's user avatar
  • 409
0 votes
0 answers
68 views

What do people call such a chart with a strip of activity types per time?

What do people call a chart like that below which has days on Y axis and time of the day on X axis while color represents a kind of activity (data gathering, processing, etc.)? It is very close to ...
Damir Tenishev's user avatar
9 votes
3 answers
765 views

What do people call a chart with a strip of peak values in time intervals?

What do people call a chart like one below which has days on Y axis and time of the day on X axis while color represents the level of some value (for example, loading, usage count, etc.)? The chart ...
Damir Tenishev's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
80 views

When authors write "model of the data" is this a shorthand for "model of the data generating process" [duplicate]

Some authors, such as Barber in Bayesian Reasoning and Machine Learning and Rasmussen & Williams in Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning, write phrases such as "model of the data" and ...
fire-bee's user avatar
  • 121
6 votes
4 answers
991 views

Is it incorrect terminology to say "confidence interval of a random variable"?

I have seen claims that "population paramter is not a random variable" when discussing confidence intervals. eg here Be sure to note that the population parameter is not a random variable. ...
Shreyans's user avatar
  • 284
8 votes
2 answers
520 views

What is it called when two variables causally affect one another?

Suppose two variables X1 and X2 are correlated and we know that X1 causes X2 and X2 causes X1. For example, leg strength and an interest in cycling interest might be correlated. And (suppose) we know ...
quant's user avatar
  • 384
6 votes
1 answer
165 views

Terminology clarification about sample moments

According to MathWorld (link): "The sample raw moments are unbiased estimators of the population raw moments". While in Wikipedia (link) it is said: ...the $k$-th raw moment of a population ...
user1420303's user avatar
9 votes
6 answers
265 views

Why was the term "significance" ($\alpha$) chosen for the probability of Type I error?

I'm currently studying "Statistics 1" as part of my Computer Science degree, and I'm having trouble understanding the concept of "significance." We were provided with the following ...
Yup8's user avatar
  • 93
1 vote
1 answer
83 views

What is the name/terminology for this application of OLS regression

I don't come from a statistics background and was instructed to follow these steps to fill in missing data. I'm wondering if there is a name for this specific method so that I can learn more of it and ...
code_monke's user avatar
11 votes
4 answers
3k views

What kind of chart is this and how to read it?

I came across this chart that is both weird and intriguing. It is about some literary works produced in the regions mentioned. The x axis is the time and y axis the percentage. The preceding para has ...
vin's user avatar
  • 213
0 votes
0 answers
13 views

Given variable A and B containing data of lemma sentiments, what is the correct term for the variable containing average of var A and var B?

I have a data visualization, showing the sentiment of two lemmas "гей" (var a) and "трансгендер" (var b) in a news corpus throughout the year. Here is the dataframe sample of my ...
pindakazen's user avatar
2 votes
3 answers
85 views

what is null hypothesis in a simple term? [duplicate]

I am new here, reading a lot what null hypothesis is but not quite get clear picture. Could someone give me a simple explanatation or example please.
Kanokpon Arm's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
30 views

What is a limited estimator?

I'm reading this paper where, on pp 3 of the pdf, the authors write (emphasis added): "As the fitted two-component model is a limited estimator to classify bound/unbound sites, we additionally ...
user1507246's user avatar
11 votes
1 answer
961 views

Deviation between Mean and Median

If I have a mean of 15 and median of 10, is there a term for the difference between these? Can you use this difference of 5 for anything valuable statistically?
greenguy's user avatar
  • 111
2 votes
1 answer
91 views

What's the difference between Mediators, Co-Variates, Moderators and Confounders terms?

I was wondering if someone could shed some light on the difference between the above-mentioned terms since I see them used frequently in many research publications I've read. If I have an outcome ...
David Musoke's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
89 views

Background reason for the terms ‘Isotropic’ and ‘Anisotropic’ in the context of GNN Message Passing

I’m reading a paper on Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) that uses the terms ‘isotropic’ and ‘anisotropic’ in the context of message passing. I understand that these terms originate from physics, chemistry,...
MohammadJavad Vaez's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
147 views

Error rate vs Empirical risk - What's the difference between practical and theoretical terms for performance of neural networks?

Motivation I am currently reading the following book: Understanding machine learning by Shalev-Shwartz and Ben-David. The book uses statistics terminology in its machine learning theory, and it is not ...
Mr. Fox's user avatar
  • 21
0 votes
0 answers
18 views

What is this method name for comparing two financial time series by their difference (subtraction)?

I am trying to find a reference/name for what I am doing for explaining it in an academic work. My scenario is that: I have financial time-series A and B. I want to answer if A outperforms B or vice-...
Reuel Ribeiro's user avatar
14 votes
5 answers
2k views

What is the statistics term for exact value that occurs in otherwise continous distribution?

For some continuous quantities (e.g. daily rainfall at a certain location), there is one exact value that occurs often (in the case of daily rainfall that's the value of zero: there are days on which ...
Bernard Postema's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
40 views

Terminology: multivariable when multiple levels of categorical variable?

Oftentimes, one sees people use terms such as univariate and multivariate logistic regression, where they clearly refer to number of predictors rather than number of response variables. I know it ...
NeuroPanda's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
43 views

Is a database either a population or sample population? [closed]

I am writing a paper, and I hit a singular obstacle. What are databases in statistics nomenclature? How do we call databases in statistics vernacular? Populations or sample population or databases or ...
Full Array's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
51 views

Bias-variance trade-off for a specific fitted model vs. a class of models: terminology

Consider a data generating process $$Y=f(X)+\varepsilon$$ where $\varepsilon$ is independent of $x$ with $\mathbb E(\varepsilon)=0$ and $\text{Var}(\varepsilon)=\sigma^2_\varepsilon$. According to ...
Richard Hardy's user avatar
7 votes
4 answers
839 views

Sample notation: When to use capital $N$ vs lowercase $n$?

In statistics and psychological research, what is denoted by capital $N$ vs lowercase $n$? I work in psychological research and I've seen them used in two ways: Capital $N$ represents the entirety of ...
Cameron's user avatar
  • 173
0 votes
0 answers
13 views

Mean-parameterizable models that have invariant concentration functions, but that aren't translation-invariant?

Definitions: Sorry for the ad hoc terminology -- comments or answers that provide pointers to standard terminology would be much appreciated. For simplicity I'd like to restrict discussion to real-...
hasManyStupidQuestions's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
233 views

Hierarchy principle: who defined it first?

Different questions here deal with the problem of whether to include main effects in interaction models, for example here, here and here (for the opposite problem, omitting interaction coefficients ...
robertspierre's user avatar
5 votes
0 answers
23 views

Apriori Algorithm confusion: difference between frequency and support

What is the correct way to calculate support? I have seen two different ways and I'm confused as a result. One way (say first approach) is explained https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/...
Srishti M's user avatar
  • 1,425
9 votes
2 answers
179 views

Origin of the term "spherical" in relation to covariance matrices?

I understand that a covariance matrix with all diagonal elements equal, and all off-diagonal elements also equal (but different to the diagonal elements) is called "spherical". I am curious ...
Robert Long's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
61 views

Residuals and "error terms" in time series

I'm self-studying and I see “residuals” seems to be what is left, after we take away non-random components. So if we have additive decomposition : $$ Series = Constant + Trend\text{ }_t + Seasonality\...
Johannes Konrad's user avatar
3 votes
0 answers
57 views

What is a measure of hardness-of-approximation by samples?

Suppose there is a large vector $\mathbf{x}$ of real numbers, and I want to estimate a certain aggregate function $f(\mathbf{x})$ by taking a small sample of the population $\mathbf{x}$. I would like ...
Erel Segal-Halevi's user avatar
6 votes
1 answer
132 views

Why are complete statistics named "complete"?

I get why sufficient statistics are named "sufficient", but what about "complete" statistics? I have this definition from F.J. Samaniego, Stochastic Modelling and Statistical ...
Alexandre Huat's user avatar
2 votes
2 answers
178 views

Terminology: what is the name for sets of aggregated values over periods of time?

In statistics/analytics, let's say we have a time series of data points, i.e., pairs of timestamps and values: t: 0 y: 42 t: 1 y: 32 t: 2 y: 29 t: 7 y: 0 As for ...
JHH's user avatar
  • 121
8 votes
3 answers
611 views

Inference vs prediction terminology

The terminology "inference" and "prediction" seems to have different usage across numerous sources and at my current work. In some places, it seems "inference" refers to ...
David's user avatar
  • 715
0 votes
0 answers
22 views

Distribution of the relative range ($R/\sigma$) [duplicate]

Let us assume a $n$-sized random sample $\{ X_1 , \dots, X_n \}$ from a random variable $X \sim N(\mu, \sigma)$. Let $X_\mathrm{min} = \mathrm{min}\{ X_1 , \dots, X_n \}$ $X_\mathrm{max} = \mathrm{...
Vicent's user avatar
  • 789
5 votes
1 answer
93 views

Does the PDF $\exp\left(-\frac{x^2}{2}\right) \cosh(\gamma x)$ have a name?

Is there a name for the following probability density function: $$ P(x) \propto \exp\left(-\frac{x^2}{2}\right) \cosh(\gamma x) $$ where $\gamma \ge 0$ and $x\in\mathbb{R}$? Eventually my goal is to ...
a06e's user avatar
  • 4,440
0 votes
0 answers
55 views

Clarification about the terminology of Hypothesis testing

I have a Hypothesis $H_0:$ A person has Corona, $H_1$: The person does not have corona. I know that \begin{aligned} \alpha &= \mathbb{P}_{\theta_0}(X\in \text{Reject H}_0), \\ 1-\beta &= \...
Upstart's user avatar
  • 101
1 vote
0 answers
54 views

How is the name of an effect size chosen?

The wikipedia page about effect sizes lists many effect sizes ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effect_size). Obviously, it's often the case that names are partly constructed by the name of the person ...
Daniela's user avatar
  • 57
1 vote
1 answer
31 views

What is the correct way to refer to the Likelihood $L(\theta, \alpha | X)$ where $\theta$ and $\alpha$ are parameters?

I am currently studying some latent variable models. In many works, I found the following equation: $L( \theta, \boldsymbol\pi | x ) = \sum_{c=1}^{C} f(x| \theta, \alpha = \alpha_c) \cdot \pi_c$ where ...
Renato Fernandes's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
67 views

What's the difference between "standard error of estimate" versus the "variance of residuals"

For OLS linear regression, Hayes (2022, p. 56) provides a definition of "mean squared residual" and one for "standard error of estimate", for a model with $k$ predictor variables: $...
moses.rivera100's user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
20 views

Example of statistical experiment in which the statistical unit is time

Could you give me some examples of statistical experiment/analysis in which the statistical unit is the time? If I conduct a study on the number of people who have attended a bachelor degree over time,...
Elia's user avatar
  • 1
24 votes
7 answers
5k views

Statistical fallacy from a Japanese light novel

The following is a snippet of dialogue from the first volume of the Japanese light novel series Combatants Will Be Dispatched: "Listen here, number 6. This teleportation machine hasn't failed ...
夏目漱石's user avatar
11 votes
5 answers
1k views

How would a Bayesian define a fair coin?

In the frequentist worldview, probabilities are long-run relative frequencies. Hence, a fair coin can be defined as a coin, for which the long run relative frequency of each of the sides approaches 0....
Sam's user avatar
  • 755
0 votes
0 answers
9 views

What is the right way to talk about user events in an AB experiment as random variables drawn from distinct distributions in a test?

Say we have a well setup A\B test that puts half of users in one arm, half in another. We are testing clicks on a website. I'm trying to understand how to speak about the impressions as draws from a ...
Estimate the estimators's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
32 views

What are the individual elements within the outcome of a sample space called?

What is each entry in an outcome of a sample space called? For example, say our outcome is ${HHT}$, describing two heads and one tail. What is each head ($H$) and tail ($T$) member of the outcome ...
Estimate the estimators's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
186 views

Is it more correct to say "bias of the standard error of the estimator" or "bias of the standard error of the estimate"

I understand an estimator is a "rule" (e.g., a function, say $g$) that produces an estimate ($\hat\theta$) of an estimand (say, a population parameter, $\theta$). My question: is it ...
moses.rivera100's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
75 views

Why is density function of survival time called instantaneous failure rate

Why density function of survival time is called instantaneous failure rate. I am confused why density function is a failure rate for survival time.
kuwoli's user avatar
  • 479

1
2 3 4 5
34