Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [terminology]

Usage and meaning of specific technical words/concepts in statistics.

0
votes
0answers
2 views

Help with terminology. How to even phrase a question?

This is a bit embarrassing but I can't even find the words to properly do a Google search. I am doing simulations and I am trying to develop a better adaptation process. The process has seven ...
1
vote
1answer
12 views

Is a model fitted to data or is data fitted to model

Is there a conceptual or procedural difference between fitting a model to data and fitting data to model? An example of the first synatax can be seen in https://courses.washington.edu/matlab1/...
3
votes
2answers
55 views

How broad is the term statistical summary?

I am wondering how broad is the term "statistical summary". For example, can a set of inferential statistics, descriptive statistics, along with both parametric and non-parametric density estimation, ...
0
votes
0answers
9 views

Difference between epochs, batch size, input size, output size and number of neurons in a neural network

What is the difference between epochs, batch size, input size, output size and number of neurons in a neural network? How do I plot the performance index with respect to epochs?
0
votes
0answers
12 views

How do you explain 'explained variance'?

What is the best definition of 'explained variance' from a teaching perspective? I quite like this one: "Explained variance (also called explained variation) is used to measure the discrepancy ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

what does it mean to run a time series model in levels?

I have seen the phrases running a var in levels and running a var in difference in very high frequency, either on this site or elsewhere. I understand running a var in difference basically means to ...
2
votes
0answers
28 views

What is the correct definition of Selectivity : TPR or TNR ? Since contradictory literature exists

The reason of my question is because contradictory articles exist. Talking about the confusion matrix's performance metrics, we can find: English wikipedia pages mention that ...
0
votes
0answers
58 views

Term for two variables that are “too close for control”

Sometimes we are tempted to assess a relationship of X1 with Y while controlling for X2, but it would be a mistake, because X2 is not merely correlated with Y -- it is more closely associated than ...
1
vote
1answer
16 views

Sample space for 4 consecutive coin flips vs 4 coins flipped at once

I am trying to firm up my understanding of sample space. I am playing with the idea of two random processes, where one realization of each process is (A): flip a coin 4 times, record the results (B):...
2
votes
1answer
47 views

What's the term used when identical feature vectors map to different target variables?

Context: Fitting a Machine Learning Algorithm on a labeled dataset. For a feature vector [a,b,c] and a labeled output/target variable, what's the term used when identical feature vectors map to two (...
1
vote
1answer
28 views

Type of normalization [duplicate]

Suppose you have some vector $[a_1, \ldots, a_n]$ where the terms are non-negative. How do you call the normalization method where you divide each element by the sum (to get a probability vector)? i....
0
votes
2answers
66 views

About basic terminology: experiment, outcome, sample space, is my understanding correct?

Part 1 We could define "tossing $1$ coin $1$ time" as an experiment $E_1$, with possible outcomes, aka, the sample space of which is $\{H,T\}$, this set has 2 elements; "tossing $1$ coins $2$ ...
0
votes
0answers
8 views

Nomenclature of hierarchical clustering constellation plot/graph

What is the name for the process/method by which I select the branch that has that dot, circled in red, from within the hierarchical clustered model? This is a constellation plot, made in JMP: I am ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

Terminology Confusion: Probability, Likelihood, AND?

currently I have a terminology issue to accurately write a text. I read up on the definitions on probability and likelihood. Given some continuous random variable(s) as far as I can infer, probability ...
1
vote
2answers
20 views

Describing the spread of outcomes from simulations

In general, what is the term to describe the 5th and 95th percentiles of outcomes coming from a simulation study? Say we obtain a vector of outcomes y. In R we can ...
1
vote
0answers
61 views

Learning algorithm vs Model in Machine Learning [duplicate]

In ML, I learned that we have a model and a learning algorithm. The learning algorithm is used to train the model with training data, does that sound correct? If the model is trained using linear ...
3
votes
1answer
32 views

Least Squares Estimator Vs Ordinary Least Squares Estimator

Is there any difference between the two terms "Least Squares Estimator" and "Ordinary Least Squares Estimator". For convenience, I'll refer to them as LS and OLS respectively. I have read various ...
3
votes
0answers
58 views

Terminology: “Central Limit Theorem” for Delta Method

This is a question about when is it appropriate to call an asymptotic normality statement, the "Central Limit Theorem" (CLT). More specifically, suppose I have $X_1, X_2, \dots X_n$ iid from a ...
1
vote
0answers
28 views

What is the name for bins derived from Quantiles? [duplicate]

It's so easy to talk about "deciles" as if they were groups of observations that fall between the actual deciles, i.e., "any of the nine values that divide the sorted data into ten equal parts." But ...
2
votes
0answers
15 views

Is there a term to refer to a weighted mean that's weighted by a function of percentile (using a kernel)?

I came-up with a type of central tendency which is a weighted mean. The weighting is based on percentile, with values closer to the median having a higher weight. It's similar to the idea of a ...
1
vote
1answer
41 views

Are “the probability of something being seen” and “the probability of someone seeing something” the same?

I'm puzzling over how to treat the distribution of TV advertising spots. I have a list of spots and the % of the population who saw them. What I'm trying to get is a Gamma distribution representing ...
3
votes
1answer
29 views

good terminology for the parameters of a lognormal distribution?

Is there any good short terminology for the two parameters of a lognormal distribution? I have been using mean-log for $\mu$ and volatility for $\sigma$, where the lognormal variable $X$ has $\ln(X)$ ...
3
votes
0answers
21 views

Statistical test for first sample greater than given sample?

Does anyone know of a name for the following statistical test/whether there is a name/whether the following line of reasoning is just bogus? Say I have a value $x$, and a way to generate samples from ...
11
votes
3answers
118 views

Terminology for Bayesian Posterior Mean of Probability with Uniform Prior

If $p \sim$ Uniform$(0,1)$, and $X \sim$ Bin$(n, p)$, then the posterior mean of $p$ is given by $\frac{X+1}{n+2}$. Is there a common name for this estimator? I've found it solves lots of people's ...
8
votes
2answers
444 views

What are “fringeliers”?

I recently received a reviewer comment from a journal submission that asked me to report how I dealt with outliers and fringeliers. I had not heard of the term "fringeliers" and when I googled, ...
2
votes
0answers
25 views

Confusing terminology of TimeSeries: “Smoothing” and “Differencing” [closed]

I studied MA, AR, ARIMA, SARIMA to forecast products demand using python, but recently I encountered the smoothing, using ...
1
vote
0answers
32 views

What is an autoregressive model - terminology with respect to machine learning

In Wikipedia, an autoregressive model is defined in terms of an AR(p) linear process as The autoregressive model specifies that the output variable depends linearly on its own previous values ...
2
votes
0answers
11 views

Terminology when after inclusion to a RCT patient may undergo two different randomization procedures

I have trouble finding appropriate terminology for the following. I want to investigate treatments A and B in disease X and treatments C and D in disease Y. Diseases X and Y are basically two ...
0
votes
1answer
16 views

Reporting effect aize

Could someone please explain the difference between standard mean difference and adjusted mean difference. I want a common rubric for reporting effect size.
3
votes
2answers
80 views

What is the correct terminology for repeating groups of coin flips multiple times in a simulation?

I previously posted a question that is causing a lot of confusion because my terminology is incorrect. I decided to post this question to ensure I am starting my problem with the correct terminology. ...
1
vote
0answers
14 views

Notation in different articles about HMM

I'm studying hidden Markov models, especially the articles by Stamp (2018) and Rabiner (1989). Please let me check with you that I got this right: Especially the last observation is my own, about the ...
0
votes
1answer
29 views

How can one summarize categorical variables with frequency variables in a clinical study?

Quote: All eligible patients were analyzed. For the background of the patient population, categorical variables were summarized with the frequency and rate and continuous variables with fundamental ...
1
vote
1answer
15 views

Is there a term for a random sequence of integers with every consecutive pair in the sequence being unequal?

I'm trying to generate a random sequence of integers whereby no two consecutive values are equal to each other. This sequence is meant to simulate changes in state only. Is there some term or concept ...
0
votes
0answers
18 views

What is local stationarity and how to detect it in time series

What is local stationarity time series and how to detect? and what is the difference between it and between global stationarity?
2
votes
1answer
202 views

In statistics, is there a formal name to the two variables of a two-dimensional contingency table?

Is there a formal terminology for the variable in the columns and for the variable in the rows?
1
vote
2answers
45 views

What are the predictor variables in a neural network?

In a linear regression model, the predictor or independent (random) variables or regressors are often denoted by $X$. The related Wikipedia article does, IMHO, a good job at introducing linear ...
0
votes
0answers
17 views

structural break vs regime shift in simple language

I went through the wiki pages for Structural Break and Regime Shift. It seems to me that they are synonyms. Is there a difference ?
0
votes
1answer
28 views

What does it mean for a variable to block a path between other two variables?

What does it mean for a variable $Z$ to "block" the path between variables $X$ and $Y$ in a causal model? What is the formal definition of a "block", and how can I intuitively understand this concept? ...
0
votes
0answers
19 views

time series terminology question

Suppose I have a time series $x_1, x_2, ..., x_{10}$. I apply the augmented Dickey Fuller test to my data an conclude the data are non-stationary with (say) lag = 2. With lag = 2, the tested data ...
2
votes
1answer
96 views

One sided test $H_0:\mu=0$ or $H_0:\mu\leq 0$? [duplicate]

I want to test $$H_0: \mu \leq 0 \,\,\,\,\,\, vs \,\,\,\,\,\, H_1: \mu > 0.$$ I am using a t test, so the statistic $T$ has $\nu$ degrees of freedom which depend on the sample size. What is ...
5
votes
3answers
827 views

What is the precise definition of “performance” in machine learning?

In machine learning, people usually refer to the "performance of a model" or "performance of an optimizer". What is the exact definition of "performance"? What would be the "performance of an ...
0
votes
0answers
26 views

Term for “the things that determine the solution to an Machine Learning(ML) problem”?

A machine learning problem can be seen as a pair $(T,L)$: a set of training data $T$, and a loss function $L$ on the training data. I am looking for a term that captures everything about how a ...
0
votes
0answers
25 views

Dot subscript summation notation used in design of experiments

Context I couldn't find a clear explanation of this on this site, and thought that it might be of use. I have provided part of the answer, which anyone is welcome to build from. I'm not sure how to ...
10
votes
2answers
611 views

Why is the Neyman-Pearson lemma a lemma and not a theorem?

This is more of a history question than a technical question. Why is the ``Neyman-Pearson lemma'' a Lemma and not a Theorem? link to wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neyman%E2%80%93Pearson_lemma ...
2
votes
1answer
28 views

Mutually exclusive events, pairwise mutually exclusive events and disjoint sets

I have been confused by the phrases: mutually exclusive events, pairwise mutually exclusive events and disjoint sets. My book uses these at different places. What is the difference between them?
0
votes
0answers
16 views

Terminology, meaning of “Concepts” in Statistical Learning Theory

I'm studying the definition of PAC learnable: Let C be a concept class over X. We say that C is PAC learnable if there exists an algorithm A with the following property: for every ...
9
votes
4answers
434 views

Is “random projection” strictly speaking not a projection?

Current implementations of the Random Projection algorithm reduce the dimensionality of data samples by mapping them from $\mathbb R^d$ to $\mathbb R^k$ using a $d\times k$ projection matrix $R$ whose ...
2
votes
2answers
104 views

What does aggregation mean in statistics?

Im a programmer who is currently studying to become a data scientist. I was reading this https://seaborn.pydata.org/tutorial/relational.html#emphasizing-continuity-with-line-plots in this there is a ...
1
vote
1answer
21 views

Terminology for neural networks

The words “a neural network” in machine learning can refer to either of The architectural design of a neural network (number of layers, etc) The network with specific parameter values encoded in it. ...
11
votes
5answers
2k views

What precisely does it mean to borrow information?

I often people them talk about information borrowing or information sharing in Bayesian hierarchical models. I can't seem to get a straight answer about what this actually means and if it is unique to ...