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Questions tagged [two-stage-least-squares]

Two-stage least squares (2SLS) is a structural equation modeling technique that is used when the IV is correlated with the DV's errors.

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3 answers
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Two stage models: Difference between Heckman models (to deal with sample selection) and Instrumental variables (to deal with endogenity)

I am trying to get my head around the difference between sample selection and endogeneity and in turn how Heckman models (to deal with sample selection) differ from instrumental variable regressions (...
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19 votes
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Probit two-stage least squares (2SLS)

I was told that it's possible to run a two-stage IV regression where the first stage is a probit and the second stage is an OLS. Is it possible to use 2SLS if the first stage is a probit but the ...
user3543169's user avatar
7 votes
2 answers
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Why do you put all the exogenous variables into the first and second stage of 2SLS?

For a general MLR, let's say we have k endogenous X's, r exogenous W's, and m instruments. The first stage of the 2SLS model is regressing each of the endogenous X's on all the Z's and W's. For the ...
Matsutake's user avatar
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1 answer
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how to explain instrumental variables to a layman

I am giving a talk to a group that contains both quantitative and qualitative researchers, but most of the quants' understanding stops at crosstabs and regression. Does anyone have any ideas which ...
user2362087's user avatar
4 votes
0 answers
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Generalised Residuals - Estimated value of the density at that point for observation $j$ $i$?

I am trying to write R code for the generalised residuals as described in Vella (1993) and also mentioned by Wooldridge (2014). Wooldridge suggests to use these ...
Tom's user avatar
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1 vote
0 answers
728 views

How to do a Control Function (CF) / Two Stage Residual Inclusion (2SRI) with an ordinal dependent variable in the first stage and a glm in the second

I am trying to use a Control Function (CF) / Two Stage Residual Inclusion (2SRI) approach, because the modeled relationship that I am trying to estimate is non-linear (my dependent variable has a ...
Tom's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
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Weak first stage in 2SLS

I have a simple IV model with 1D variables: $N = \alpha_z + \beta_z Z + \epsilon_z$ $S = \alpha_s + \beta_s N + \epsilon_s$ $N$ is an integer, while $S$ is dummy. $Z$ is by construction ...
oDDsKooL's user avatar
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19 votes
1 answer
5k views

2SLS but second stage Probit

I am trying to use instrumental variables analysis to infer causality with observational data. I have come across a two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression which is likely to address the ...
Veronica's user avatar
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10 votes
1 answer
319 views

Why is the functional form of the 1st stage in 2SLS not important?

In a presentation today the speaker made the above claim. He said that even if the first stage is mis-specified, the coefficient estimates of the second stage will still be valid. As a lowly graduate ...
Heisenberg's user avatar
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7 votes
2 answers
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2SLS - logit/probit in the second stage?

I just have a quick question: what if I'm interested in estimating a logit/probit model in the second stage, can I follow this two-step procedure by running OLS in the first stage (endogenous variable ...
fccog's user avatar
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7 votes
1 answer
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Definition of "optimal" instruments

The book I read (Davidson,MacKinnon - Econometric Theory and Methods) describes the definition of "optimal instrument variables" as the following: Usually, and this is seen very often in ...
Druss2k's user avatar
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5 votes
1 answer
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Can there be endogeneity?

I am performing a regression in which I suspect there could be endogeneity between the main explanatory variable and the dependent. As a first step I perform an OLS regression and then, to control for ...
fiorita's user avatar
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4 votes
1 answer
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Instrumental variable with measurement error

I have a question related to measurement error bias and the use of instrumental variables. Assume I have a continuous outcome variable $Y$ which is observed with no error and an endogenous (continuous)...
Panagiotis's user avatar
4 votes
1 answer
15k views

Basic 2SLS IV Questions in Stata

(1) If I believe my instrument is exogenous conditional upon a few exogenous variables, do I include them only in the first stage? I.e. would the command be: ...
Adam Smith's user avatar
3 votes
1 answer
152 views

Why the representation in the form of $Z'X(X'X)^{-1}X'Z$ can not be simplified into $Z'Z$

Representation similar to $Z'X(X'X)^{-1}X'Z$ frequently appear to e.g. 2SLS. I think that $Z'X(X'X)^{-1}X'Z = Z'XX^{-1}X'^{-1}X'Z = Z'(XX^{-1})(X'^{-1}X')Z = Z'Z$. So why it seems that in the context ...
Aqqqq's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
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Identifiability of multivariate instrumental variable model

I'm interested in estimating the effects of $X_1$ and $X_2$ on $Y$ in the directed acyclic graph below. $U_1$ and $U_2$ are unobserved confounders. Based on Definition 7.4.1 on p. 248 of Causality ...
bilgelm's user avatar
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3 votes
1 answer
2k views

Causality studies on observational data: DID with 2SLS to compliment Rubin causal model

A study with observational data has treatment and control group but the assignment is not randomised: some chose to be in the treament, some otherwise. But the choice had been made before the ...
Khan's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
49 views

Are standard errors from a second stage with OLS always underestimated? [duplicate]

I use Stata. I build on Standard errors of a two stage least squares regression, Stata to compute manually the standard errors for my model: I cannot use standard packages (ivreg2 etc.) as the second ...
axel365's user avatar
  • 21
2 votes
1 answer
2k views

Non-statistically significant effect of the instrument in the reduced form of the 2SLS

I am using a 2SLS, with two endogenous variables and two instruments. I conduct the Under- and the Weak-identification tests; results from these tests suggest that my instruments are not weak. ...
Fuca26's user avatar
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2 votes
0 answers
300 views

Two-stage least squares approach to Deming regression

I am interested in statistical inference for the Deming regression model: $$ x_i=x^*_i + \epsilon_i$$ $$ y_i = (\alpha+\beta x^*_i) + \epsilon'_i$$ where the $x^*_i$'s are nonrandom fixed numbers, $\...
Stéphane Laurent's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
10k views

2SLS with endogenous interaction term

I am trying to estimate a peer effects model where a certain characteristic of the individual and the peers might be endogenous: $$\ y_i=\alpha + \beta_1 Controls_i + \gamma_1 Endog_i +\gamma_2 \...
Julia's user avatar
  • 21
1 vote
1 answer
513 views

2SLS Without Mixing The instruments

Suppose I have the following strucutural equation in time-series: $$y_t=\beta_0+\beta_1x_{1t}+\beta_2x_{t2}+\zeta w_t+\epsilon_t \quad (1)$$ In which both $x_{t1}$ and $x_{t2}$ are endogenous ...
John Doe's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
2k views

Asymptotic Efficiency of Two-Stage Least Squares

Apparently Wooldridge, Introductory Econometrics, 2002ed is the only book showing that two-stage least squares (2SLS) is asymptotically efficient. I cannot get a copy of the proof. Is it correct to ...
user9448's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
3k views

Including several endogenous interaction terms

I would like to write you beacause of the following issue: I´m estimating an IV-model with the following common structure: $Y = constant + b1*X1 + b2*X2 + b3*Xend + b..*Xcontrols$. I´ve found also a ...
Mr.Morgan's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
145 views

2SLS with endogenous variable $X_1$ and interaction terms $X_1 \times X_2$, $X_2$ exogenous

I would like clarification on the correct way to set up the first-stage regression(s) for a hypothetical 2SLS regression. Say we have the following formula: \begin{align} y = x_1 + x_2 + x_1 \...
Pancho_Squancho's user avatar