# Questions tagged [weights]

"Weights" may refer to: (1) observation weights that come from sample surveys -- consider tagging "survey-sampling"; (2) Monte Carlo sample weights that arise when sampling from intractable distributions -- consider tagging "weighted-sampling"; (3) variable weights in statistical or machine learning models such as regression, factor analysis, or learning networks -- consider tagging with that specific model. Other odd uses of weights go here.

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### Weights in Caret train

I would like to know more on the weights parameter in Caret train as I could not find any thing concrete from Caret documentation. Whether the weight indicates cost sensitive learning by engaging ...
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### Unusual p-values after weighting

I'm still new to R and most probably this is a rookie question, but maybe some of you could help me understand what is happening. I'm analyzing some results of an experiment in which I have three ...
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### Glorot initialization and gradient variance condition

In the Glorot initialization I don't understand why this condition should be validate to avoid vanishing/exploding gradient problem: "we need the gradients to have equal variance before and after ...
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### Calculated standard error of two covariant variables of different weighting schemes

I have two variables $\bar{X}$ and $\bar{A}$ calculated as $\bar{X}=\sum_{i=0}^{n}w_{x,i}x_i$ where $x_i=i$ and $\bar{A}=\sum_{i=0}^{n}w_{a,i}a_i$ where $a_i=i$. From there $s_A$ and $s_X$ are then ...
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### How do I properly weight an uneven (spacing) distribution of the numbers? [closed]

I have a set of numbers (depths actually) and I need to take the mean of another variable over these depths. For example, take the mean of temperature over a range of depths, however these depths are ...
1answer
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### When performing matrix multiplications in neural networks, is it acceptable to do X * W rather than W * X?

I'm having a hard time seeing a clear convention being used and I've seen it both ways. X * W would assume the features (X) are in row format, and the weights are in column format. Is there anything ...
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### Survey weighting for comparison of different groups

I have a survey with 4 questions (Yes/No) that I'm weighting using raking on age, gender, and country. I would like to subgroup to compare if young people < 40 to see if they have higher proportion ...
1answer
27 views

### Applying count models with rate responses

How do you apply count models to data which is count in nature, but a rate in reality? In such cases, r can handle this to a certain extent, depending on the model, but what is the correct way to ...
1answer
47 views

### How does the probability weight, called a pweight in Stata, work?

I am using inverse weights in a panel data analysis (fixed effects) in Stata, to see if my regression coefficients are the same after I reweight the analysis to better represent respondents most ...
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### How to estimate weights for summation of variables

I have scores of two people, for which I want to create a combined score. This combined score is what I use as an independent variable. Currently I weigh both scores equally, so 50/50. But I have ...
1answer
44 views

### what's the purpose of trying to have small model weights via regularization?

In machine learning, it is often advised to use weight regularization so that the model parameters don't grow big while training. I am not convinced that having small weights improves the model's ...
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### Assign more importance to recent records during training

I have a large dataset with information from the last year. I have to build a classification model in order to predict if a customer will buy a product or not (binary classification). Since in the ...
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### Weights in multi-level models

I really hope that this is the right place to ask my question and that it hasn't been asked yet - otherwise please let me know. I am currently running a multi-level regression model with a cross-level ...
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### Euclidean distance from zero

I am trying to create my own weights for relative work task importance, or weight. For every task, I have a value of importance, ...
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### distance between two points (x,y) weighted by location (x)

a new on algebra. I am trying to create an indicator of the distance between two points (x,y) from a (0,1) scale, but I want to create a weight that reduces such distances as the point x is closer to ...
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### Assigning weights to features for clustering

I want to run a K means clustering algorithm (using scipy/scikit) on a 1mn records dataset. I have a list of 5 features. Each of these features have a predetermined weight assigned to them: F1, 25% F2,...
1answer
336 views

### Non-normality in linear mixed models/GLMM

I have some data of time-depth profiles of whales. I want to model how the maximum depth of each dive (deepest point reached during a dive) changes between two dive types, foraging (if the whale feeds)...