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In frequentist hypothesis testing, the $p$-value is the probability of a result as extreme (or more) than the observed result, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is true.

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In a paired t-test, each observation is of the form: $Z = X - Y$. That means that the variance of each observation is $$Var(Z) = Var(X-Y) = Var(X) + Var(Y) -2Cov(X,Y)$$ Now, suppose that X,Y and …
answered Nov 17 '13 by user1357015