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The frequency measures the number of times an event occurs in a data set.

7
votes
frequency. You can exploit that to compare datasets with different absolute frequencies: standardize the residuals (by dividing them by their expected deviations). This has a close mathematical … like these: they are called "QQ" (quantile-quantile) plots. This method works well for any dataset. Interpreting the chi-squared statistic becomes a little delicate when the average frequency drops below $5$ or so, but for almost any exploratory application that's no problem. …
answered Jun 8 '17 by whuber
5
votes
This is an empirical version of the "probability integral transform." Suppose you have $n$ data values. Sorting them in ascending order, index them as $$x_1 \le x_2 \le \cdots \le x_n.$$ Replacin …
answered Sep 13 '12 by whuber
4
votes
This follows from the fact that the local effect of the function $R\to R^3$ is to expand values more and more as $R$ increases. We don't actually need any ideas of Calculus to demonstrate this, thoug …
answered Jun 22 '17 by whuber
4
votes
), function(s) paste("(", paste(s, collapse=","), ")", sep="")) z <- sort(table(as.factor(ngrams)), decreasing=TRUE) The tabulation is in z, sorted by descending frequency. It is useful by itself or …
answered Nov 14 '13 by whuber
11
votes
on Fourier Analysis. But in the meantime, the question has been answered in a way that shows "time" and "frequency" may be red herrings: this fundamental property of converting convolution into …
answered Feb 8 '16 by whuber