Calibration can refer to adjustment of measurements to agree with value of some standard; to transform classifier scores into class membership probabilities; etc. Do not use for predicting an explanatory variable from an observation of the dependent variable, for that use the tag inverse-prediction.

In regression, calibration can refer to predicting an explanatory variable from an observation of the dependent variable or to adjustment of measurements to agree with value of some standard.

In machine learning it may refer to transforming classifier scores into class membership probabilities.

It can also refer to performing inference on model parameters.