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Tables of counts (occasionally proportions of marginal counts), arranged by (at least) two marginal categories, displaying bivariate or multivariate frequencies. Sometimes called crosstabs.

Contingency tables are tables of counts (occasionally proportions of marginal counts), arranged by two or more marginal categories, displaying bivariate or multivariate frequencies.

Contingency tables are often associated with chi-square tests.

Contingency tables can be used in exploratory analysis or as a summary. When supplemented by additional information in each category combination besides the count or proportion (such as contribution to chi-square or Pearson residual, for example), these can become a valuable data analysis/diagnostic tool.

Contingency tables are sometimes called crosstabs.

Reference: Wikipedia - Contingency table