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All your examples are time series, and line charts are appropriate for all of these, as long as all buckets have valid data. (If there is no data for a particular time bucket, then I would not join the two adjacent data points by a line.) In those cases it seems like the line segments are there only for increased readability. I would say that increased ...


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You don't typically want to use a plot with the observed $Y$ values, because there can be a 'tilt' in the relationship, and that can make things harder to see. In this case, I'm not sure it makes much difference, but because of that general principle, the default is to use fitted / predicted values. In addition, we typically put the residuals on the ...


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First, a couple of comments on the figure itself. One problem is the broken vertical axis. This exaggerates the variability among the 20 bottom cases and artificially creates two groups that are treated differently. It would probably be better to just use a logarithmic vertical axis. The use of different colors to distinguish different cases is dubious. It ...


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Example: Suppose you have $n = 1000$ randomly chosen subjects of whom $x = 889$ are 'engaged.' Then the estimated proportion engaged in the population is $p = x/n = 0.889.$ Wald confidence intervals are intended for use with such large samples. A 95% Wald CI is of the form $\hat p \pm 1.96\sqrt{\frac{\hat p(1-\hat p)}{n}}.$ Using R as a calculator, we get ...


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There is no "best" way to encode your data before knowing what model you will use and its performances. You can optimize for memory or other constraint, but no definite answer can be given based like that. However there is an entire field of NLP dedicated to word embedding. It basically encodes words (or tokens) into fixed-length real vectors. ...


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This sounds like a qq-plot to me. It's most typically used to compare the distributions of two samples (e.g., groups), or to compare a sample to a theoretical distribution (e.g., the normal). (It may help you to read my answer to: PP-plots vs. QQ-plots.) I gather they have ordered categorical distributions, and they are plotting the ECDFs (empirical ...


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