# Tag Info

### How do I compare the results between two different Likert Scales questionnaires?

First, your dissertation committee has done you a disservice. You should have been required to figure this out before you gathered data. Second, I don't think this is possible. Your two sets of ...
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### How to simulate Likert-scale data in R?

A likert scale, as the term is typically used, is just an ordinal rating scale. The phrase is often used for a single rating, which might have been called a likert item. Traditionally, the idea was ...
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### Midpoint removal from 5-pt Likert scale

I'm not sure why your advisor thought it was a good idea to remove a response option from the data after collection, as @RNM noted. As well, mean substitution is seldom a really good option for ...
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### If my sample size is large, is it ok to conduct a linear regression with a 7-point Likert item as a dependent variable?

Regardless of the sample size, nobody prohibits you from using linear regression. People sometimes use linear regression in situations where the dependent variable is binary, counts, or ordinal. In ...
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### Hypotheses Testing - Correlation vs. Regression

Welcome to CV. For question A: No, you don't need to run correlation before regression, but you do need to check the assumptions of the model. Most of these checks are done after running the model. ...
• 125k
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### Possible to correlate 7-point, 5-point, and 9-point Likert scales with Pearson correlation?

Yes, it is perfectly valid to conduct a Pearson's correlation between variables with different scales. The correlation coefficient is a standardized measure, so it is not influenced by scale. Here ...
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### Hypotheses Testing - Correlation vs. Regression

My responses are slightly different from Peter's, but I feel they are nonetheless relevant. Do I need to run a correlation test before the linear regression? As he said, you do not need to, but you ...
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### How do I compare the results between two different Likert Scales questionnaires?

While I agree with all three points Peter Flom makes, this will not help you in your thesis. What you can do is to simply run an unpaired t-test against your two sets of Likert ratings, which tests ...
• 129k
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### How to simulate Likert-scale data in R?

To perform the simulation, here is a one line solution using the sample function: ...
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### How do I compare the results between two different Likert Scales questionnaires?

I agree with Peter Flom's answer and Stephan Kolassa's answer to a substantial extent. Like Stephan, I think a highly-limited analysis could be performed, but I want to give my two cents on the ...
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### Comparing matched pre-post likert scale data (n = 40)

[TL;DR: If you want to perform a hypothesis test, you must start with a hypothesis to test, then choose a suitable test for that hypothesis. A hypothesis will be a statement about one or more ...
• 287k

### Question about Normality of 5-point Likert scale

Is it a crucial problem if my data isn't normally distributed? Data are (almost) never normal. Whether that's an issue depends what forms of deviation from normality the procedure you want to use ...
• 287k
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### How did Likert calculate sigma values in his original 1932 paper?

Thorndike's Table 22 displays the expected value of a doubly-truncated normal distribution, which can be seen as a conditional expectation given that the variate is in an interval specified by ...
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### What criteria to use when having with 'unengaged' , ‘straightlined’ or ‘patterned’ responses in questionnaires?

In my opinion, I think the data should be analyzed as is. To some extent, these patterns are a reflection of the survey as well as a reflection of the population. Basically: crap in, crap out. Long ...
• 64.2k
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### Freeman's coefficient of differentiation (theta) for ordinal tables: do you have calculations or implementations?

In honor of Russell's paradox (barber version), and the fact that there were no answers to my question, I'll add an answer to my own question. The calculations for Freeman's theta are included in the ...
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### Analysing pre-and-post intervention study with anonymous responses

a) Given the sample size, would running an unpaired t-test on the full sample be appropriate? Or should I be going for a non-parametric test? The sample size is not typically considered as "small" ...

### How to simulate Likert-scale data in R?

One way to generate Likert data is according to a proportional odds model. Here, the underlying distribution of the (latent) response is a logistic random variable with a center $\mu$ that can vary as ...
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### Midpoint removal from 5-pt Likert scale

First, you created missing data where there was none. Perhaps your supervisor had something particular in mind, but I can't see what it could be. The midpoint is not missing. Second, you used a very ...
• 125k
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I was wondering, is there any reason I should not use a scale like: 0, 1, 2, 4. From a modelling perspective, no, there is no reason why you shouldn't use such a scale, because, as mentioned in ...
• 63.8k

### How to convert percentage values from 7 point scale to 5 point scale?

As already signalled, you can't do much -- without extra information or assumptions. Here, without any strong claims, is a method from Mosteller, F. and Tukey, J.W. 1977. Data Analysis and Regression. ...
• 58.7k
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### What is the right statistical measure for consistency?

Intraclass correlation (ICC) is often used to measure rater consistency. In the original article, Shrout, P. E., & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater ...
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### How are questions of similar meaning in questionnaires dealt with?

When there are multiple questions getting at the same issue in a questionnaire, these are typically aded together to get a combined score. The individual questions are Likert items, with their ...
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### How to best code the N/A response of the Likert-type rating scale?

Some of the answers here seem more complicated or hi-falutin' than may be needed or indeed justified. For example, in many projects short of say Ph.D. level, getting into imputation may be beyond the ...
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### Does the total of ordinal scores on a questionnaire become scale in SPSS?

It is quite common to add Likert items, even though this (as both WHuber and Sal have noted) requires that we are treating them as interval data. The trouble is that Likert scales are really in-...
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### Reference thesis for outliers in Likert scale data

I agree with whuber. Instead of looking for outliers on restricted scales such as Likert, it is more convenient to identify suspicious responses. Three of the categories you should check carefully ...
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### How can I compare the results of two Likert scale surveys?

So McElreath (2020) talks about how Likert data is often the most mistreated type of data. While other methods may give you a reasonable answer, what you really should be using is an ordinal logistic ...
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### Are "discrete-like" questionnaire sum-scores acceptable as "continuous" variables in SEM/path models?

No real data is really continuous. No method requires truly continuous data for being computed. The question whether measurements are ordinal, interval, nominal or ratio is different from whether data ...
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### Is there any harm in modelling Likert scale data using an lmer() model?

Since your goal with the model is prediction and not inference, I don't think there is any harm in modelling a 7-point Likert scale outcome as continuous with lmer. I would, however suggest comparing ...
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