I have been thinking about this for a few so I would like to hear some opinions. It could be complicated to explain so I will update the question if there is something that its not clear.
Imagine I have a tabular dataset looking like this:
Code, F1, F2, F3, F4, TARGET 01, 15, 23, 43, 12, 10
Suppose I plot the distribution for CODE=01 and all the targets are between 10 and 12. This means that, if I dont take any other feature into account, If I have a neural network It could learn that when CODE == 1 prediction is 11 and it has maximum 10% error.
My train dataset has some samples as the one mentioned in the code snip, but my test ALSO has similar samples.
Training_set Code, F1, F2, F3, F4, TARGET 01, 15, 23, 43, 12, 10 01, 17, 32, 23, 8, 12 Test_set Code, F1, F2, F3, F4, TARGET 01, 21, 12, 43, 12, 10 01, 23, 2, 12, 43, 11
So anyways the weight of my NN says that when input CODE=1, prediction is going to be 11. Error is ''good'' in both train and test and even validation. Kfold says everything is good. But the truth is that my NN has just 'learned' a simple rule, CODE=1, PREDICTION=11. It works in the real world because Im always receiving some CODES=1, with should be predicted between 10 and 12. Would you considered this overfitting?
Now imagine that NN is using all the features.
Training_set Code, F1, F2, F3, F4, TARGET 01, 15, 23, 43, 12, 10 Test_set Code, F1, F2, F3, F4, TARGET 01, 15, 23, 23, 8, 10
As you can see there is a huge common part between samples. Would you consider this as a duplicate? If I do some contribution analysis and I see that my NN is using basically using the firsts 3 features (code, f1, f2) to take a decision and this information WAS in my training set.. is it still valid? it is overfitting? should know I consider it as a duplicate?
Just another example: Imagine I'm trying to identify FACES, I want to know if a photo has a face. Then in my test_set I put a photo of a friend which is already in the training BUT it is a different photo. In this case I could try simply with other faces and see the results, but imagine that in the real world Im gonna use ONLY photos on my friend so overfitting will be ok as long as I detect that?
Thanks in advance.