I am confused of why my Dickey-Fuller test is significant (which implies stationarity), while the time series clearly exhibits a deterministic trend?
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Since you have put the tag "augmented-dickey-fuller", I will assume you did the ADF test with a trend.
So in that case, if you think your series do have a deterministic trend, then the result of the test is indeed correct, because it is trend stationary. That is, once you account for the deterministic trend (as you do in the ADF test), the process is stationary.