I am reading about survey methodologies and my question is about the meaning of prime notation as you can see in the picture belowenter image description here

For a second example please check the link to the paper where I found the prime notation mentioned many times.

Does it mean the transpose of a matrix in this paper?

Thank you in advance!

  • $\begingroup$ Without more context it is hard to say for sure but that is a common notation. $\endgroup$
    – mdewey
    Commented Sep 7, 2016 at 20:10
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks for you comment mdewey :) For the link I provided can you check the page 2 of the paper please? the context there is more clear $\endgroup$ Commented Sep 7, 2016 at 20:12
  • $\begingroup$ for the full text shown in the picture please check this link: home.lu.lv/~pm90015/.../W2012_CP_WANG_LISHA.pdf $\endgroup$ Commented Sep 7, 2016 at 20:29

1 Answer 1


It is probably the transpose operator on the vector $x_k$ where $k$ is a unit. You see $x_k$ written out as a row vector but the author wants to tell you that it's actually a column vector.


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