We used the Q test to determine heterogeneity with p-values <0.10. A highly recognised statistician commented that the Q test has low power and that it should not be used to determine presence of heterogeneity.
Low power is a known issue. Are there clear alternatives? Can the exact version help in scenarios with low sample sizes?
I cannot easily find alternatives and Cochran's Q is standard in the field (his wording was different and quite strong though). Should the Q test not be used to determine presence of heterogeneity? This seems to contradict many other sources. I have seen the test statistic H^2 but it is derived from Cochran’s Q and it is not commonly used (from what I can see).
I have searched across SO sites and elsewhere (Cochrane's Handbook, Meta-Analysis with R from Guido Schwarzer) but can't find clear answers. Related questions are: