Questions tagged [hypothesis-testing]

Hypothesis testing assesses whether data are inconsistent with a given hypothesis rather than being an effect of random fluctuations.

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Within subject experiments done by (some) Psychologists

Thanks in advance for any responses or resources you can link me to. I've had more of an Econ/Stats training and recently I've been working with some people who have a Psych background at work. They ...
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Determining significant predictors for a dataset with the outcome variable [closed]

I am working on a dataset and trying to get the significant predictors? The dataset contains numeric and categorical variables and there is an outcome variable. What would be the best approach? I am ...
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Why was the term "significance" ($\alpha$) chosen for the probability of Type I error?

I'm currently studying "Statistics 1" as part of my Computer Science degree, and I'm having trouble understanding the concept of "significance." We were provided with the following ...
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What is the formula to compute the height of significance line on autocorrelation plot?

Autocorrelation of a time series can be plotted in R with use of acf function. For example: acf(ldeaths) # built-in series I ...
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How to test for equal spread in bivariate normal samples with equal means?

I'm working with samples taken from a bivariate normal distribution, where the differences in means is not relevant since all samples are scaled to mean (0,0) anyway, and I'm trying to remember how to ...
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Binomial logistic regression and inter-group comparison

I am interested in exploring the relationship between two categorical variables: "Ethnicity" and "Disease", each with two levels. My primary hypothesis is that individuals with &...
Erfan Naghavi's user avatar
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Hypothesis testing on total surveys

How should one think about hypothesis-testing ratio scale variables that do not have a distribution resembling a normal/t-distribution, when the data comes from a total survey? Some background: I have ...
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selecting the most appropriate statistical test for comparison of multiple independent variables belonging to two groups

I want to compare the drinking water chemistry of two areas. A disease is prevalent in one area while the other area is almost free from this disease. I have measured the concentrations of 10 ...
Bernard Prame's user avatar
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Appropriate way to correct for multiple hypotheses with multiple one-way ANOVAs and Tukey's post-hoc

I have a dataset with four groups and 14 different dependent variables. Based on the answer given here, I think the best approach for my analytical question is to perform multiple one-way ANOVAs, ...
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Help: G*Power Analysis for Correlation and Moderation

I have 3 measures, all scored on Likert style scales and I will be using the sum of items from each as scores. It is a cross-sectional study. predictor variable is attachment style (with two levels, ...
Cody Banks's user avatar
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Replicate t or F test from regression using regression likelihoods

I've heard that the t-test and F-test we use to get the significance of our regression results are derived from the likelihood ratio test, but I'm having trouble replicating the p-value of the t/F ...
A Friendly Fish's user avatar
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Distribution of $Z^2 \cdot I(Z > 0)$ where $Z \sim \text{N}(0,1)$

When using the Likelihood Ratio test for testing particular hypotheses and attempting to obtain an size-$\alpha$ test, I run into the expression $$ \mathbb{P}\left( Z^2 \cdot I(Z > 0) > c \right)...
YessuhYessuhYessuh's user avatar
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I have a population size of 500 and want to test X number of samples with high probability that I will catch a failure, how many samples do I test?

I cannot test all 500 subjects for failure. I need to know how many subjects out of the 500 I need to test in order to understand all subjects outcomes with confidence. What would the formula be?
mviviano's user avatar
3 votes
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Continuity correction in a 2 proportion test, with different sample sizes

In a test of 2 proportions (binomial -> Normal), when the sample sizes are different, what does a continuity correction look like? Usually, in a 1 sample test, we would divide by $n$ (sample size) ...
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Deriving the Likelihood Ratio for a Normal Distribution Hypothesis Testing [closed]

I'm exploring the likelihood ratio principle in hypothesis testing, specifically within the context of normal distributions, and I've encountered a challenge in deriving a specific likelihood ratio. ...
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What statistical tests to use for multiple datasets?

I have calculated the species richness of mammals in 10 sites, for different variables. For example, I have the species richness of carnivores, omnivores, herbivores etc in one analysis group, and ...
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Permutation Feature Importance in the Context of Cross Validation

I am considering two apporaches to calculate the mean, std and standard error (se) for ...
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Data analysis for school project

I have to create a hypothetical study focusing on the relationship between sBCMA (soluble B-cell maturation antigen in blood) and the expression of BCMA on bone marrow cells in patients with multiple ...
youknow 321's user avatar
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Why p-values as $P(p≤\alpha | H=1)≤\alpha$ and not $P(H=1 | p≤\alpha)$?

That's my question, as if I start from the definition of a $p$-value ($P(p≤\alpha | H=1)≤\alpha$ ) and apply Bayes rule I arrive to: $$ P(p≤\alpha | H=1)=P(H=1 | p≤\alpha)\frac{P(p≤\alpha)}{P(H=1)} ≤\...
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Predict benefit of gathering additional data

I have generated data upon which I then perform thousands of independent tests and look for which are significant at a p-value threshold of 0.01 after multiple hypothesis correction. This gives useful ...
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Interpretation of ADF test output with R

I Run ADF test with R for 3 different models include,1.No deterministic terms, 2. with constant and 3.constant and trend based on the below code where all model specifications employ a lag-order of p =...
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Binomial Test for data with normally distributed messurement error

I have a series of measurements and I want to perform a binomial test to see if the chance of exceeding some value $a$ is less or equal to some $p_0$. The measurement has some error which is normally ...
Adrian 's user avatar
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Statistical test for bias to even sizes

I'm studying an experiment which should follow a type of birth-death process, which tells me the number of cells at a certain time from the same lineage. So, I have a discrete empirical distribution ...
mathsisfun's user avatar
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Gaps (misinterpreting perhaps) between chi square sig and Cramer’s v

I did chi square test for independence and Cramer’s V test. I’m having problems with interpret the results. I checked if there is a connection between gender and dropping out of school (in SPSS). My ...
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Degrees of freedom for estimation

In the context of estimators, why is it that in general dividing by the degrees of freedom(instead of the sample size) leads to unbiasedness? I see the value in substituting degrees of freedom for ...
secretrevaler's user avatar
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Is hypothesis test an intuitionist approach? [closed]

In statistics, the hypothesis testing is used for determining whether the null hypothesis can be rejected or failed to reject. For example, we use hypothesis testing in order determine the ...
Tunay Sabri Yüksel's user avatar
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1 answer
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Mediation: only c path and b path are significant?

I have done a mediation analysis in which nature contact is the independent variable, worrying is the mediator and depressive symptoms the dependent variable. I performed a mediation via PROCESS. The ...
MAG Weimans's user avatar
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Region of Practical Equivalence (ROPE)

I seek to understand how to employ the Region of Practical Equivalence (ROPE), so I conducted a basic Bayesian analysis of disease incidence rates on a public data set. Is my rationale sound regarding ...
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Loop through chisq.test RStudio [migrated]

I am trying to perform chisquare tests on about 30 variables. I tried to write a for loop to no luck. The loop should also save the p-value of each test. I have used this kind of setup before, in ...
MalinU's user avatar
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How can I test if two variables are correlated with each other with a pre-specified coefficient? [duplicate]

How can I test the hypothesis that two variables are correlated with each other at r=1? I am not looking for a Pearson or Spearman test. That can give me a p<0.05 if the two variables are ...
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Conditional Probability of the null hypothesis given the rejection region

let $X \sim Bin(10,p)$ We would like to test the following hypotheses: $H_{0}: p=0.5 $ vs $H_{1} : p=0.3$ The Statistic $T(x)$ is defined as $T(x)=x$ and the critical (rejection) region is $R=\{x:T(...
Solomon123's user avatar
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Why is there such a difference between chi2 and mcnemar? [duplicate]

With R, I run these two tests and get very different results. Does anyone have any explanations? Thanks in advance! Here is the code: ...
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1 vote
2 answers
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Correct interpretation of an Unbiased Test

The definition in the book I am reading says the following: A test with power function $\beta(\theta)$ is unbiased if $\beta(\theta') \geq \beta(\theta'')$, $\forall \theta' \in \Theta_{0}^{\...
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General Lower Bound of Power in Neyman-Pearson

Let $X$ be an $\sigma$-finite space $(\mathcal{X}, F_{\mathcal{X}}, \nu)$ valued absolutely continuous random variable whose distribution is one of $P_0 = f_0(x)d\nu(x)$ or $P_1 = f_1(x)d\nu(x)$. We ...
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Mixing MLE and Hypothesis Testing

In my field of biology, we have spatial data with known distances, so we know a general formula for our error structure that we can use in a generalized least squares context, it is $$ (1-\lambda)\...
A Friendly Fish's user avatar
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Test for significant difference between two groups measured across time

I have two groups of time-dependent samples whose measured value changes nonlinearly with time. There are 3 samples in group A and 3 samples in group B. An example of my data is illustrated below. ...
bjarke15's user avatar
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Comparing sequence of unfair coin flips with different predicted probabilities

Suppose we have $n$ independent coins, each of which has an unknown and different probability of coming up heads. We have a magical machine that guesses the probabilities of each coin coming up heads. ...
differentiableapple's user avatar
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What do One-Sided Confidence Ellipses Look Like?

To make things concrete, take a simple linear model: $$E[y \vert x_1, x_2] = \alpha + \beta_1 x_1 +\beta_2 x_2$$ In a one-sided hypothesis test, like $\beta_1 \ge k$ vs. $\beta_1 \lt k$, the ...
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Distinguish whether time series comes from or another Poisson process

I have a time series of binary events, where the events are drawn from a Poisson process with a 50% chance of having a rate of $\lambda_1$ and a 50% change of having a rate of $\lambda_2$. Here $\...
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A/B testing impact of two different product pricing strategies on revenue

Scenario I am running a marketplace with 100,000 products available for purchase on my website. In most months between 1000-10000 different products are sold. This means that in any given month the ...
qoga's user avatar
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4 votes
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Model assumptions - not worth the effort?

This question was inspired by this discussion I read recently. After obtaining our results, the assumptions from the models we used should be checked, otherwise these results may be deceiving. ...
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Testing if three proportions follow hypothesized ordering

I have a set of $n$ samples, and each sample $i$ is labeled with three binary characteristics $a_i,b_i,c_i\in \{0, 1\}$. I'm trying to test the hypothesis that the proportion with $a_i = 1$ is the ...
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Testing equality of unconditional variance of two stationary AR times series?

Suppose I have two stationary AR time series: $$ \begin{align} y_{1,t} &= \phi_1 y_{1,t-1}+\varepsilon_{1,t} \\ y_{2,t} &= \phi_2 y_{2,t-1}+\varepsilon_{2,t} \end{align} $$ with $\varepsilon_{...
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Regression with single-observation dummies: F-test under heteroskedasticity

I have a linear regression model with an intercept and a few dummy variables. Each of the dummies indicate a single observation, so the fit is perfect for these observations. Having fit the model, the ...
Richard Hardy's user avatar
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chi squared test, motivation for formula for statistic [duplicate]

I am learning about chi squared tests, specifically about test for independence and goodness of fit test. In both tests statistic is sum of square of differences between observed and expected data ...
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Comparing averages of two groups

Say I want to check if the averages of 2 groups (A and B) are the same. For each member in group A, there are some observations; same applies for group B. If I want to take the average of A and B, I ...
Andrei's user avatar
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2 answers
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Define metric to use after ab test is finished

Let's consider such a setup for an experiment: I've made some new feature to the existing system and want to test, whether this feature will bring positive value to the system. May be I don't know ...
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Determining if slopes are zero or slopes are equal- can one actually accept a null hypothesis?

I am not a statistician and would like some help discussing best practices with colleagues. My understanding is that if I run a linear regression y = ax +b the p value I get for x is testing HO:a=0 vs ...
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Are there exact conditional tests for testing system of inequalities of Bernoulli means?

I have two independent Bernoulli samples: $\{X_i\}_{i=1}^{n_1}$, $\{Y_i\}_{i=1}^{n_2}$, $X_i \overset{iid}{\sim} Bern(p_1), Y_i \overset{iid}{\sim} Bern(p_2)$. I need to test: $$H_0: p_1 \ge p_2 \ge 1/...
D F's user avatar
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Statistical significance of hierarchical (multi-level) associations

Association rule mining is a common technique in Data mining used to find itemsets which appear together very frequently in large transaction databases (e.g. in Table 3 we see that in a transactions ...
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